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  1. Pharmacological Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Activity of Ethanolic extract of Andrographis lineata Nees on Hepatotoxicity Induced Rats Download Article

    E.Nikhil Chakravarthy, D.Sudharshan Reddy, G.Venkataiah
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1-6)
    • No of Download = 165

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    Liver diseases are still a worldwide health problem due to drug-induced hepatotoxicity. It may occur as an unexpected idiosyncratic reaction, or nontoxic drug or it may be an expected consequence of the intrinsic toxicity of a drug, taken in a sufficiently large dose to cause liver injury. A highly potential therapeutic agent or a medicinal extract is necessary for the preventive action of the hepatic disorders leading to the inflammation and drug inducing liver injury. The present study proved the medicinal plant with supportive therapeutic efficacy. Albino wistar rats of either sex are induced by Rifampicin orally at a dose of 1g/kg and for a period of 14 days, and were treated with ethanolic extract of the stems of Andrographis lineata Nees (EEALN) orally at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day. The biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Total protein, and serum bilirubin (Total and Direct) were estimated to assess the liver function. Ethanolic extract of the stems of Andrographis lineata Nees (EEALN) showed the hepato protective activity by decreasing the levels of serum hepatic marker enzymes. Silymarin is used as a Standard drug. Histopathological studies were performed to confirm the biochemical changes in the hepatocytes. Toxicological studies were carried out with the extract and 2000 mg/kg b.wt. is considered as the safe dose with no mortality and adverse effects.

  2. Television Viewing Habit and Violent Behavior among School going Children (10-15 Years) Download Article

    Chris Thomas, Bhasura Chandrachood.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (7-14)
    • No of Download = 180

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    Background: Television is a window to the outside world for children. More than half of television viewers in India are children below 15 years. Studies suggest that exposure to violence on television influences child’s behavior especially aggressive behavior. Objectives: To assess the television viewing habit and violent behavior among school going children. To determine the association of television viewing habit and violent behavior with their selected demographic variables. To find out the correlation between television viewing habit and violent behavior. Material and Methods: A Non-experimental, Explorative and Descriptive study design was undertaken. Data was collected from 60 school going children selected by stratified random sampling and 60 parents of the same children. A structured questionnaire and rating scale was used for data collection. Results: Findings showed that majority (72%) of samples had moderately high television viewing habit. The overall mean score of violent behavior was (64.7±18.61) suggesting that the school going children had mild level of violent behavior. There was significant positive relationship between the television viewing habit and violent behavior (r=0.50).There was significant association between the television viewing habit and gender (χ2- 5.91, P<0.05) and leisure time (χ2- 4.34, P<0.05). There was highly significant association between violent behavior and gender (χ2- 11.09, P<0.05) and significant association between violent behavior and angry behavior among family member (χ2- 6.43, P<0.05) and leisure time (χ2-6.69, P<0.05). Conclusion: Study revealed that there is significant relationship between the television viewing habit and violent behavior among school children. Nurses could initiate and encourage discussions with the parents in this aspect and generate awareness among them.

  3. Power tools for inciting critical thinking among new research students Download Article

    Atta Abbas
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (15-16)
    • No of Download = 199

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  4. Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory activity of different fractions from Leucas Cephalotes Download Article

    Babu Rao B, Krishna mohan G
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (17-31)
    • No of Download = 118

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    The present study was carried out to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of various fractions of Toluene, Ethyl acetate, Butan-2-one and N-Butyl Alcohol of Leucas cephalotes. The fractions of the plant material were evaluated for the analgesic activity by acetic acid-induced writhing test, Eddy’s Hot plate test in mice and formalin-induced test and anti-inflammatory activity was screened by Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma formation in rat models. The test fractions were showed analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect in dose dependent manner and ethyl-acetate fraction was found to be most potent among the test fractions. At 150mg/Kg b.w.p.o dose Ethyl-acetate fraction significantly inhibited 68.98% writhing response and 73.52, 76.03% Formalin induced analgesic in mice. The fraction with same dose showed significant 65.35% inhibition of Carrageenan induced rat paw edema and 43.87, 40.64% anti-proliferative effect of cotton pellet in rats and also different fractions of Leucas cephalotes showed prompt analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity due to dual inhibition properties on COX-2 and 5-LOX.

  5. The role and scope of pharmacists in community settings: A review of developing countries Download Article

    Shazia Adnan, Atta Abbas, Sidra Tanwir, Arif Sabah, Madiha Meraj, Shaista Pervez, M. Hammad Sherwani, Anum Sohail, Anus Hanif and Syed Ata Rizvi.
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (32-35)
    • No of Download = 177

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    A pharmacist is a person who is involved in designing, creating or manufacturing of a drug product, dispensing of a drug, managing and planning of a pharmaceutical care plan. They are experts on the action and uses of drugs, including their chemistry, pharmacology, the formulation of medicines. There are number of ways where pharmacist can serve the society. In a community pharmacy setting a pharmacist is tailored as the one who is knowledgeable enough to render such services. The role of pharmacist in community settings continues to be the objective of this article.

  6. Concept of Srotas from Ayurvedic Perspective with Special Reference to Neurology Download Article

    Amit Swarnakar, Jyotirmay Choudhury, T.Borah, D.Baruah, B.K.Bharali.
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (36-44)
    • No of Download = 642

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    Ayurveda is a life science. The researchers of ayurveda could rule out the presence of srotas (channels) spreading throughout the human body. These srotas (channels) are governed by vayu which is using all the srotas (channels) of the body to carry out the functional and physiological activities of the human body without which the human society will not exist. Several synonymous words have been described by the ayurvedicacharyas for srotas. Some are micro and some are macro in structures and they adopt the same colour of the particular dhatus of the body to which it belongs. The aim of the study is to justify that srotas are nothing but innumerable channels or pathways of the nervous system governed by electric current without which no functional and physiological activities of the human body will develope.

  7. Resistance pattern of cephadroxil monohydrate and ceftriaxone sodium against different clinical isolates Download Article

    Maqsood Ahmed Khan, Baqir .S. Naqvi, Mehwish Rizvi, Zeb-un-Nisa,Syed Imran Ali, Arif Sabah, Atta Abbas.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (45-50)
    • No of Download = 168

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    Resistance pattern of cephadroxil monohydrate and ceftriaxone sodium against different clinical isolates was the aim of the study and 90 clinical isolates comprising of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella, Proteus and Pseudomonas aerogenosa were collected from different local pathological laboratories and their resistant pattern against cephadroxil monohydrate and ceftriaxone sodium were studied using disc diffusion method. Klebsiella, (86.6% against cephadroxil monohydrate and 53.33% against ceftriaxone sodium) and Proteus (66.67% against cephadroxil monohydrate and 33.33% against ceftriaxone sodium). In case of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, resistance found was 41.18% and 48% against ceftriaxone sodium,82.35% and 97.62% against cephadroxil monohydrate respectively and in case of Pseudomonas aerogenosa resistance found was 40% against ceftriaxone sodium and 90% against cephadroxil monohydrate. It is concluded from these figures that microbial resistance against these cephalosporins are increasing in the population which is alarming and therefore it is recommended to physicians to prescribe these antibiotics only if no other alternate is available in clinical practices.

  8. A study on current marketed formulation of Unani Medicine used in the treatment of Zayabetus Download Article

    Mukesh Sharma, Kushagra Nagori, Hemendra Swarnakar, Sanjay Vaishnav, Md.Nazir, Nasim Khan, Ajay Singh.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (51-63)
    • No of Download = 440

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    The word Diabetes is derived from Greek word “DIABANMO” which means passing through. Zayabetus or ziabetus can be divided into two types according to presence or absence of sugar in urine viz. ZIABETUS SADA (Ziabetus Barid) and ZIABETUS SHAKRI (Ziabetus Har). Diabetes Mellitus (Zayabetus) is one of the most important lifestyle related disorders that is mostly widespread in urban areas. The Unani system of originated in Greece. Hippocrates is known as the father of Unani system of medicine. The theoretical framework of Unani system of medicine is based on his teachings.After a number of other greek Scholars enriched the system considerably. Of the Galen (131-120 AD) stands out as the one who established its foundation on which Arab physicians like Rhazes (850-925 AD) and Avicenna (980-1037 AD) constructed an imposing edifice. The number of people around the World suffering from diabetes has skyrocketed in the last two decades, from 30 to 230 millions. East Asian countries have the highest burden of diabetes. India comprises of 85% of the adult population of Southeast Asia and therefore the major contribution to diabetic population in South East Asia is from India. It has been estimated that India, considered as the diabetic capital of the World with more than 32 million diabetes patients would continue to lead even at 2030 th a whopping 80 million diabetics. So many brands and formulations are available in market like-Diab-Eaze,Dolabi Tablets,Herbo Diabecon,Gurmar Capsules, Neem Capsules,Fenugreek Capsules,Safoof- E- Ziabetes- Dulabi.

  9. Health promotion survey in overweight and obese students of universities in North East England, United Kingdom Download Article

    Atta Abbas, Arif Sabah, Sidra Tanwir, Farrukh Rafiq Ahmed, Anwar Ejaz Beg, Syed Ata Rizvi.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (64-73)
    • No of Download = 173

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    Overweight and obesity is one of the major health problems in the UK and worldwide. Approximately two-thirds of the population in the UK is either overweight or obese. Overweight and obesity is an important issue that causes distress to most women. Health promotion is the best method to educate overweight and obese women. It is defined as the process enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health by Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. It is aimed to enhance the well-being of the individuals and their positive attitudes towards prevention of various diseases. In order to make any improvement to the health promotion for overweight and obesity, the risk factors and the opinions from the public should first be identified and addressed. Cross-sectional survey design was selected with a questionnaire that consisted of 20 open and close ended questions. A sample size of 196 was determined. The data thus gathered was analyzed using SPSS V20 (Statistical Package for Social Science version 20). Descriptive statistics (fx) and (SD) were used and Chi-square X2 test for association was employed. Out of the total 196 responses, only (40%) of the students had normal weight (SD 1.1), (25%) students had a good understanding of health promotion (SD 1.6), half (50%) appeared concerned about their weight (SD 0.5), (60%) had an obese family member (0.5). The BMI of students was associated with the presence of an obese member in their family and their weight as a concern for them. (P-value <0.05). The health promotion service is beneficial as it was found to have raised concerns in the mind of the students regarding over weight and obesity. However it was observed that the understanding of health promotion service was different among students and this is the root of the problem.

  10. Comparision of in vitro antibacterial activity of cefoperazone and levofloxacin against different clinical isolates. Download Article

    Mehwish Rizvi, Zeb-Un-Nisa, Maqsood Ahmed, Baqar Naqvi,Atta Abbas, Arif Sabah
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (74-78)
    • No of Download = 176

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    Cefoperazone (a third generation cephalosporin) has effective in vitro activity against majority of pathogens. Levofloxacin (a flouroquinolone) is one which prescribed more due to its increased antibacterial activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and atypical bacteria. Microbial resistance to antibiotics is now prevalent and poses a serious clinical threat. An attempt has been made to evaluate sensitivity of cefoperazone and levofloxacin against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi. A total of 120 isolates were collected from different pathological laboratories and medical centers in Karachi, Pakistan. The above stated clinical isolates were extracted from urine/stool, skin, blood and sputum samples. Results show least resistance of levofloxacin as compared to cefoperazone against Escherichia coli (32.5% and 42.5%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (36% and 48%) while Staphylococcus aureus is still susceptible towards cefoperazone and least sensitive to levofloxacin by showing 26.6% and 50% resistance respectively. Study concluded that the prevalent pathogens are still susceptible towards levofloxacin and cefoperazone but the gradual increase in resistance is alarming to the general practice of prescribing antibiotic which require routine evaluation and surveillance to ensure the effectiveness of the antibacterial agents.

  11. Evaluation of preliminary phytochemical on various medicinal plants Download Article

    Babu Rao Bhukya
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (79-82)
    • No of Download = 189

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    The present study was carried out to evaluate the physical status and percentage yield of methanolic extract and its fractions of whole plant of Leucas cephalotes, leaves of Hiptage benghalensis and leaves of Kydia calycina were recorded for future references and Preliminary phytochemical screening of MLC, MHB and MKC revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, steroidal and phenolic compounds. MLC revealed the presence of all the above mentioned phytoconstituents except saponins and also MKC steroidal compounds. The fractions of MLC, MHB and MKC revealed the presence of glycosides, phenolic compounds, steroids and flavonoids.

  12. A Study on Sigmoid Volvulus presentation and Management Download Article

    N.Junior Sundresh, S.Narendran.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (83-87)
    • No of Download = 193

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    A study on sigmoid volvulus presentation and management was a 2 yr retrospective study done at RMMCH.The diagnosis of sigmoid volvulus was made from a history of large bowel obstruction (constipation, abdominal distension, and abdominal pain), which were often recurrent and plain abdominal radiographs.The morbidity associated is Superficial wound infection occurred in four patients. All the infected wounds eventually healed with conservative measures. Clinical anastomotic dehiscence was noted in 1 patient for which during relaparotomy proximal colostomy and mucous fistula was done. The mortality associated is shown is there were 9 deaths of which 7 were due to sepsis and 2 were due to comorbid illness. Two out of eight patients for whom a colopexy was done had a recurrent attack of sigmoid volvulus. The duration of hospital stay ranged between 10 and 21 days. Use of sigmoidoscopic detorsion for viable colon should be encouraged. Sigmoidopexy, which is associated with a recurrence rate of 20% in our series of patients, should be used selectively.Hartmann’s procedure is a safe option in sigmoid volvulus with gangrenous bowel.Primary anastomosis in emergency situation can be carried out with morbidity and mortality in patients with viable colon.

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