Articles

  1. Study of invitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and acid-base indicator properties of flower extracts obtained from five traditional plants Download Article

    Y.Arsia Tarnam, Z.Sahitha Nizwan
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (169-176)
    • No of Download = 442

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    Anthocyanins are an important group of highly hydrosoluble pigments in most species of plants that may appear in red, purple, or blue depending on the pH. Anthocyanins are generally degraded at higher pH. The presence of this anthocyanin in the flower extract is responsible for the use as an indicator, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activity. The present study was done on the Flower extract of Bougainvilea glabra, Butea monosperma, Calendulla officinalis, Ixora coccinea, and Hibiscus rosasinensis to investigate the properties of the flower extract as an Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory and Acid - Base Indicator.

  2. Management of Rheumatoid arthritis Download Article

    Amal Ghouraba, Asmaa Darwish, Rehab Elbanhawy, Rasha A Mohamed, Ahmed Mohamed, Ahmed Abdalla
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (177-181)
    • No of Download = 210

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    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can be defined as an autoimmune inflammatory disease which is represented in about1% of the world population and occurs in the middle age with increasing frequency in older population. RA has several types which can be caused by joint inflammation,bone or joint damage. Scientists were unable to determine the causes of such inflammation until few years ago when some evidences or clues were unveiled that involved mainly genetics and environmental factors. Although there is no known complete cure of RA, treatment aim to achieve several goals which are pain relief, slow joint degeneration and improve patient well- being. To achieve that, several approaches could be applied including lifestyle, medication, routine monitoring and surgery.

  3. The association between type-II diabetes mellitus and hypertension: A case report Download Article

    Hania Fawad, Mahnoor Maqsood, Atta Abbas.
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (182-185)
    • No of Download = 293

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    Introduction It is well documented that there is an association between the levels of plasma glucose concentration previous cardiac complications and blood pressure of non-diabetic individuals. However no study has reported an actual relationship among these factors in a typical clinical setting. The following case study is based on a patient with a history of IHD and hypertension, being diagnosed with uncontrolled DM type II. Case presentation This case study is based on a 53 year old female patient with a previous history of IHD and HTN, for which she was being treated with the required regime. She presented to the ER with clinical symptoms of hyperglycemia. RBS revealed that she had elevated plasma glucose levels and hence was diagnosed with type II DM. Conclusion The case study presents a clinical relationship between type II DM and HTN. The management of such patient requires adequate drug therapy and any errors in the pharmacotherapy can be rectified by inclusion of a clinical pharmacist in the health care team.

  4. Public awareness of diabetes mellitus in klang district, selangor Download Article

    Rajenthina Sagaran, Nagarajan Srinivasan.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (186-195)
    • No of Download = 237

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    Objective To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of diabetes mellitus among the public of different age, gender, ethnic origin, and highest level of education and to identify the level of awareness of diabetes mellitus among the public. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2012 to February 2013 to evaluate the level of public awareness along with their knowledge, attitude and practice towards diabetes mellitus. 400 participants aged 12 and above were randomly selected and were asked to participate in this study. They were required to answer a predesigned questionnaire regarding their socio demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practices related to diabetes mellitus. Results The results revealed that there is a statistically significant difference in the mean knowledge of respondents with different age ranges and different ethnic origin but there were no significant difference in the knowledge among different gender and highest education level. Out of 400 respondents, 284 respondents which are 71% knew that diabetes mellitus is a condition characterized by raised blood sugar. As for the complications, kidney disease, foot problems and eye disease was found to be the three highest complications at 62.3%, 61.3% and 48.9% respectively. Conclusion Age and highest level of education were found to be the predominant predictive factors in most of the respondents whereas the gender of respondents did not affect the findings of this study. The results also revealed that the awareness of the public regarding diabetes mellitus is reasonably good except for some sections that needed to be given more concern such as on the eye care. An improved and well structured educational programmes that will encounter the areas of weaknesses should be recommended to increase the level of public knowledge, attitude and practice along with public awareness of diabetes mellitus.

  5. Bomb Explosion Death: A Case Report Download Article

    Pawan Mittal, Amandeep Kaur, J.P.Soni, S.K.Dhattarwal, Kamal Singla, Dinesh Chhillar
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (196-200)
    • No of Download = 402

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    A blast injury is a complex type of physical trauma resulting from direct or indirect exposure to an explosion. Blast injuries are generally seen in war conditions and terrorist attacks but rarely seen in non military population. But now days their frequencies are increasing due to our decreased alertness and because of this alarming increases in the incidences, the autopsy surgeon should know the peculiarities of blast injuries. The interpretation of blast injuries carry great importance in understanding the patho-mechanism of these injuries which also helps in the management of blast victims. Here we present a case in which an old village lady became the victim of bomb explosion in her village. The source and intention of blast remained untraced. All the peculiarities and typical features of blast injuries were present at autopsy and an effort was made to correlate the autopsy findings with the circumstances of the case.

  6. Herbal medicines: Overview Download Article

    V.P.Pandey J.Joysa ruby
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (201-204)
    • No of Download = 168

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    This review highlights the knowledge about the safety, efficacy, treatment, present market scenario and future of herbal medicines. Herbal medicines are standardized herbal preparations consisting of complex mixtures of one or more plants which contain as active ingredients plant parts or plant material in the crude or processed state. Herbal medicine has become a popular form of healthcare. There is increasing awareness and general acceptability of the use of herbal drugs in today’s medical practice. Although, most of these applications are unorthodox, it is however a known fact that over 80% of the world population depends on herbal medicines and product for healthy living.

  7. Hepatocellular carcinoma: An overview of disease epidemiology and risk factors Download Article

    Ahmed Abdalla, Al-shaymaa Darwish, Rehab Elbanhawy, Amal Ghouraba,Samah Shehata
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (205-209)
    • No of Download = 401

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    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer. Consequently, the epidemiology of this fatal disease is well considered and studied. Although hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are amongst the most prominent risk factors for this cancer, there are some other factors participating in the high incidence of HCC such as cirrhosis, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, obesity and metabolic disorders.

  8. Comparative study of anti bacterial activity of barks, leaves and flesh extracts of Moringa oleifera L Download Article

    S.Sundar, L.Anusha, P.Hema, B.Thireesha, K.SriTeja, V.Susannalatha kumara.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (210-215)
    • No of Download = 441

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    In the present study, comparative anti bacterial activity of barks, leaves and flesh extracts of Moringa oleifera L was evaluated with different pathogenic gram positive and gram negative microorganisms. Twelve extracts of barks, leaves and flesh of Moringa oleifera L were prepared with four solvent such as alcohol, ethyl acetate, benzene and acetone. The combinations of extracts were prepared in 1:1 ratio. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by agar disc diffusion method. All the extracts showed the anti microbial activity against the microorganisms. According to the zone of inhibition observed in the entire agar plates, the ethyl acetate extracts of Moringa oleifera (Leaf and Bark), (Bark and Flesh) showed maximum zone of inhibitions 20 mm, 17 mm against Micrococcus luteus respectively. The alcoholic extract (Leaf and Flesh) showed zone of inhibition 19 mm against Bacillus Subtilis and (Bark and Flesh) extract showed zone of inhibition 18 mm against the pseudomonas aeuroginosa. The acetone extract of Moringa oleifera showed lowest antimicrobial activity when compare to the other solvents extracts. From these studies concluded that, ethyl acetate extract of Moringa oleifera showed good antimicrobial activity than other extracts. Further the analysis of active ingredients present in this plant responsible for antimicrobial activity is important for the further development of new drugs.

  9. A study on traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) usage among malaysian cancer patients Download Article

    Nagarajan Srinivasan, Lim Li Ann, Molugulu Nagashekhara, Suresh Kumar M.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (216-221)
    • No of Download = 322

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    Aim This study aims to identify the determinants of TCAM usage. Objectives This study intends to determine the relationship between the cancer patients’ demographic factors, patient’s satisfaction with conventional treatment, knowledge on TCAM and healthcare professional’s influence on TCAM usage. Patient’s perceptions towards TCAM will also be determined. Methodology Simple random and convenient sampling method was used to recruit 354 patients from Hospital Kuala Lumpur between February to April 2013. All patients were directly interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Results In this study, 172 respondents were TCAM users. There were no significant differences between demographic background of respondents in the use of TCAM using ANOVA. Minimal correlation was found between patient’s satisfaction with the conventional treatment and usage of TCAM (r = 0.091). Poor correlation was found between healthcare professional’s influence and TCAM usage (r = -0.213) indicating an increase in healthcare professional’s influence will cause TCAM usage by cancer patients to decrease. Patient’s TCAM knowledge correlated negatively with the TCAM usage (r = -0.555) indicated that cancer patients are less likely to use TCAM when they have more TCAM knowledge. Conclusion Healthcare professionals should be fully equipped with the necessary TCAM knowledge while maintaining patient’s satisfaction with the conventional treatment. They should also intervene patients’ TCAM usage where a potential drug interaction or a harmful adverse event can occur.

  10. Perceptions and experiences of physicians regarding integration of clinical pharmacists in health practices: A survey of hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan Download Article

    Nabeel Khan, Atta Abbas, Ken McGarry, Sadaf Shahid.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (222-234)
    • No of Download = 212

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    Introduction Drug-related problems are frequent and may result in reduced quality of life, and even morbidity and mortality. Studies have shown that clinical pharmacists can identify and prevent drug-related problems. Although the physicians in Pakistan like some underdeveloped countries seem to have an opposing view to the expanded role of clinical pharmacists. Method A survey was conducted in which assessed physician’s interaction, experience and expectations from a pharmacist especially in a patient-oriented role. Results The findings reveal limited interactions; those limited interactions included inquiring information about particular drug availability only. About 80 to 90% of physicians have high expectations of pharmacists indicating that they should be solely responsible for any medication related query and should be equipped with extensive knowledge to tackle drug related problems effectively, however a higher % seem to disagree on allowing a clinical pharmacist’s intervention within a patient profile, the physicians with less than 10 years experience disagree on allowing them to be involved on the level of consultation regarding drug regimens or other and work side by side with them as core members of healthcare team. Conclusion These mixed reviews indicate the lack of comfort of physicians in a clinical setting. There is increasing evidence that participation and interventions of clinical pharmacists in health care positively influence clinical practice yet the state of non recognition of clinical role of pharmacists in Pakistan still needs to be addressed in order to win over physician confidence and comfort and can lead to better outcomes of patient’s health and consequently improvement in the health care system of the country.

  11. Head injury coupled with electrocution Download Article

    Kamal Singla, Ashish Tyagi, Ashish Singla, S.K.Dhattarwal
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (235-237)
    • No of Download = 228

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    Killing of a human being is one of the most serious or major crimes. Assailants are very keen to conceal crime by different methods, so there may be wrong interpretation by inexperienced autopsy surgeons and hence it may lead to injustice. So it is important that our keen observation and opinion should be conclusive for the administration of justice. In this paper we are presenting a rare case of head injury coupled with electrocution. Deaths due to electrocution are infrequent; virtually all such deaths are mostly accidental in nature with suicides much rarer & homicides least common. In India, the electricity supplied in domestic houses is usually 220-240 volts alternating current with 50 cycles per second. Homicidal electrocution is caused by placing live wire at some place which the victim is expected to touch. In this case after meticulous autopsy, the case turned to be of homicidal manner. The cause of death was head injury coupled with electrocution which were ante-mortem in nature and sufficient to cause death in ordinary course of nature. The present paper highlights the importance of meticulous autopsy for determination of cause and manner of death.

  12. Wilms tumour-An overview Download Article

    Mounica Bollu, Nallani Venkata Ramarao, Sharmila Nirojini, Ramarao Nadendla
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (238-248)
    • No of Download = 243

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    Wilms tumor (nephroblastoma), an embryonal malignancy of the kidney, is the most common renal tumor of childhood. Wilms tumor usually presents as an abdominal mass in an otherwise apparently healthy child. Wilms tumor has the potential for both local and distant spread. Approximately 5%-10% of children with Wilms tumor have bilateral or multicentric tumors. The average age at presentation is 42-47 months for children with unilateral Wilms tumor and 30-33 months for those with bilateral Wilms tumor.Treatment options include surgery,chemotherapy and radiation therapy.wilm’s tumour is almost curable by the Multidisciplinary approach with a good team work of surgeon,oncologist and radiotherapist.

  13. Mother’s satisfaction with intrapartum nursing care among postnatal mothers in orotta national referral maternity hospital, asmara, Eritrea. Download Article

    P.Kavitha, R.Aroun Prasath, Habtemariam Solomon, Luwam Tsegay, Wegahta Tsegay, Yodit Teklit BSN.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (249-254)
    • No of Download = 468

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    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate women's satisfaction with intrapartum nursing care along five distinct dimensions (interpersonal care, information given , psychological and emotional support, physical birth environment and comfort measures) simultaneously. Background Patient satisfaction is an important outcome in the evaluation and development of healthcare services.A good outcome should be that every woman should be satisfied with the care and support she received during pregnancy, delivery and postpartum periods and to feel that she and her baby have been the center of care. Method A descriptive study on the outcome using quantitative research method. Data was collected by using a structured self-administered questionnaire to a purposive sample of 100 participants. Data entered using cspro 4.0 and analyses was done using Microsoft excel and statistical package for the social science. Descriptive statistics including frequency, percentage and mean was employed. Results Different patterns of satisfaction were found. Most of the mothers (83%) were highly satisfied and 17% were satisfied. According the five dimensions 2% were dissatisfied with the physical birth environment, 1% with interpersonal care,2% with psychological and emotional support and 1% with the comfort measures. Conclusion From the research, participants were highly satisfied with the care offered to them during intrapartum period. This could be due to the presence of student nurses and the staff were generally friendly, welcoming, supportive and provided with a clean environment.

  14. Comparative study of indriyas in relation to functional aspect of sense organs Download Article

    Amit Swarnakar, Jyotirmay Choudhury.
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (255-263)
    • No of Download = 374

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    Sense organs of the human body can be undertaken as essential aspects of human life. Our world is alive with stimuli—all the objects and events that surround us. Sensation and perception are the processes that allow us to detect and understand these various stimuli. It may seem strange to think about it this way, but we do not actually experience these stimuli directly; rather, our senses allow us to get information about aspects of our environment, and we then take that information and form a perception of the world. Sensation is the process of receiving stimulus energies from the external environment and transforming those energies into neural energy. Physical energy such as light, sound, and heat is detected by specialized receptor cells in the sense organs—eyes, ears, skin, nose, and tongue. When the receptor cells register a stimulus, the energy is converted to an electrochemical impulse or action potential that relays information about the stimulus through the nervous system to the brain. An action potential is the brief wave of electrical charge that sweeps down the axon of a neuron for possible transmission to another neuron. When it reaches the brain, the information travels to the appropriate area of the cerebral cortex. The brain gives meaning to sensation through perception. Perception is the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information so that it makes sense. Every species is adapted to sense and perceive stimuli that matter to that species ability to survive in its environment.

  15. Some new facts on irritable bowel syndrome. Download Article

    D.N.Tripathi
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (264-268)
    • No of Download = 161

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    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder that affects the large intestine (colon). Irritable bowel syndrome commonly causes cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, gas, diarrhea and constipation. IBS is a chronic condition that you will need to manage long term. Irritable bowel syndrome, is a disorder of the intestine that carries no structural lesions or pathophysiological explanations. Between 10 and 20% of the population in developed countries suffer from IBS, with almost 75% of those people reporting symptoms being female. While IBS is a widespread condition, only 20-30% of sufferers consult a doctor.

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