Articles

  1. An overview on Ebola virus disease (EVD) or Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) Download Article

    N.Sriram, Ch.Rajendra Prasad
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (269-278)
    • No of Download = 133

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    Ebola virus disease (EVD), also known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a severe, often fatal illness in humans. EVD outbreaks have a case fatality rate of up to 90%. EVD outbreaks occur primarily in remote villages in Central and West Africa, near tropical rainforests. The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission. Fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are considered to be the natural host of the Ebola virus. Severely ill patients require intensive supportive care. No licensed specific treatment or vaccine is available for use in people or animals.

  2. Hair dye (super vasmol-33) poisoning – A case report Download Article

    Amareswara Reddy Gangula, Venkata Raja C, M Sureswara Reddy, Venugopal Vijayan, Samjeeva Kumar E
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (279-281)
    • No of Download = 250

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    The trend of consuming hair dyes intentionally to free their souls due to various reasons is increasing markedly especially among rural Indian population. Among them Super Vasmol-33 is a well-known emulsion-base type hair dye brand used for committing suicide. The main content in vasmol is Paraphenylenediamine (PPD). The major toxic effects of this chemical were found to becervicofacial edema, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. Quick recognition and immediate supportive therapy helps to recover completely. We report a case which highlights the toxic effects upon vasmol ingestion.

  3. In vitro activity of mupirocin on staphylococcal nasal carriers among health care providers of post operative surgical ward in a tertiary care hospital Download Article

    Vedavati B.I, Amrutha Kumari B, Venkatesha D.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (282-286)
    • No of Download = 216

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    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been associated with considerable morbidity and mortality and is an important public health issue. It is an opportunistic pathogen. The increasing resistance of this pathogen to various antibiotics complicates treatment of S. aureus infections. Effective measures to prevent S aureus infections are therefore urgently needed. AIM To evaluate the trend of mupirocin resistance in nasal colonisation of Staphylococcus in patients’ attendants and health care workers of post operative surgical ward of a tertiary care hospital. METHODS Total of 66 health care providers were studied. Nasal swabs were collected and processed for bacterial culture and. Methicillin resistance was detected by disc diffusion method using cefoxitin (30mcg) disc & mupirocin sensitivity using mupirocin (5mcg) disc. RESULTS 39(67.24%) of patients attendants had Staphylococcus carriage of which 94.87% were S. aureus . 9(24.33%) of S. aureus were MRSA. All health care worker had S. aureus colonisation of which 6 (75.00%) were MRSA. Overall 2(4.45%) S. aureus isolates from health care providers were resistant to muporocin. CONCLUSION Regular surveillance to know carrier prevalence and effective infection control initiatives are needed to reduce the incidence of health care associated infections due to MRSA. Monitoring of mupirocin resistance is essential to device carrier eradication protocols.

  4. To assess level of knowledge of staff nurses on emergency obstetric management at orotta national referral maternity hospital Download Article

    P.Kavitha, Asmerom Tesfay,R.Aroun Prasath,4Luwam Habtegiorgis, Selam Girmay, Yohana Sereke BSN.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (287-293)
    • No of Download = 298

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    The aim of this study was to assess the level of knowledge of staff nurses on emergency obstetric management, to assess demographic variable and also to find out the association between knowledge and selected demographic variable. The present study was conducted at Orotta National Referral Maternity Hospital, Asmara, Eritrea. The research design was descriptive. Non probability convenient sampling was used to select 60 samples. The selected samples were assessed by structured self-administered questionnaire and the data was analyzed by using SPSS Version 18. Results: Descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage and chi-square) were used to analyze the data. The result of the study shows that majority 39 (65%) of the staff had adequate knowledge, 21 (35%) of the staff had moderately adequate knowledge and none of them had inadequate knowledge regarding emergency obstetric management. Conclusion: The overall experience of conducting this study was satisfying and enriching .The study was a new learning experience for the investigators. The result highlights the need of improvement of knowledge on Emergency obstetrics management.

  5. A study to evaluate the effectiveness of foot massage therapy to reduce pain among rheumatoid arthritis patients in selected hospital at Bangalore Download Article

    Yemane fessehaye berhe, S. Visvanath,
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (294-305)
    • No of Download = 310

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    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of foot massage therapy to reduce pain among rheumatoid arthritis patients; the research approach adopted for this study was an evaluative approach. Pre –experimental one group pretestposttest design was used. The conceptual frame work used King’s Goal Attainment Theory; investigator hadutilized non probability convenient sampling technique to select 30 samples within the age group of 40-80 years old patients. The tool used for data collection was modified pain and physical disability assessment scale from Oswestry and Wong Baker Visual Analog Scale. The data collection procedure started with the pretest data record for their level of pain and physical disability of subjects. Then the investigator provided foot massage for 15 minutes once a day for 5 consecutive days and the investigator assessed the post test on5rd day with the help of same instrument for pain and physical disability for the same group. The data reliability was r = 0.941 and validity of tool ensured before proceeding the data collection.

  6. Evaluation of the facilitating skills of clinical instructors in the supervision of related learing experience (RLE) in selected colleges of nursing in quezon city, Manila, Philippines Download Article

    Marlyn Lumitap Cabading
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (306-312)
    • No of Download = 68

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    A college have good facilities, money, well-designed program and leadership; however, a very large extent of successful delivery of services depends on the quality of persons engaged in the educational process and effective discharge of responsibilities. The aim of the study were to determine the knowledge, attitude and skills by the students and clinical instructors themselves, to determine the association between the clinical instructors’ personal or professional observation and their clinical teaching performance and find out the suggestion to improve related learning experience. A descriptive study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and skills ofthe students and clinical instructors. A total of 190 nursing students and 31 clinical instructors were randomly selected. Data was collected using structured interview schedule. Findings of the study showed that the age of the clinical instructor from college A and college B ranged from 20 -29 to 50 and above brackets. Their average age is 35.09 and 40.21 for CI from college A and college B respectively. The monthly salary of the clinical instructors from college A ranged from below P10,000 to P15,000 – 19,999 salary brackets with an average of P13,588. In the case of clinical instructors from college B, the salaries ranged from P20,000 to P25,000 and above with an average of P27,286. The students from college A assessed the clinical instructor administrative responsibilities, duties and functions as “ almost always” ( X̄ = 4.20) while those coming from college B assessed this as “always” (X̄= 4.57). There was no significant relationship between age, gender and civil status of the clinical instructors and their performance relative to knowledge and facilitating skills. The most common suggestions of the clinical instructors and nursing students from the two colleges of nursing to improve RLE should be taken seriously by the college administration. These are the improvement of skills laboratory, upgrading professionally of clinical instructors through seminars, workshops etc, and the development of standardized evaluation system for RLE.The clinical instructor is a very important factor in the educative process of the nursing profession. Thus the quality of teaching performance he/she renders determines the progress of civilization.

  7. Chorea: manifestation of non-ketotic hyperglycemia: A case report Download Article

    Krishna Sundeep A,Durga Hari Prasad D, Varun P, Lalith Kumar P, Ramakrishna Rao M.
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (313-315)
    • No of Download = 124

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    Chorea associated with non-ketotic hyperglycaemia is an uncommon dyskinetic syndrome in uncontrolled or undiagnosed diabetes. Various theories are postulated but the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood .We report a 70-year-old man suffering from sudden choreodystonic movements and undiagnosed hyperglycaemia. It always marks the importance of screening for diabetes as a cause of acute onset of hyperkinetic disorders.

  8. Anti MDRSA activity of Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina – An in-vitro study Download Article

    K.K.Kavitha, V.Udhaya, K.Lakshmisarayu, M.R.Suseela, Harish Thumulla, S.V.Meenakshi.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (316-321)
    • No of Download = 83

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    A total of 100 Multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDRSA) strains, isolated from the clinical specimens received in the department of Microbiology, Rajah Muthiah Medical College, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India, were subjected for screening of anti-MDRSA activity of the aqueous, ethanol and methanol extracts of the leaf part of the mangrove plants ie., Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina with appropriate positive control (Amikacin). Agar well diffusion method was used in the in-vitro anti-bacterial assay to screen the crude extracts of the selected mangrove plant leaves. The study results revealed the promising anti-bacterial activity (anti-MDRSA) of the Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina leaves’ crude extract against the MDRSA strains of the clinical sources. The low level anti-MDRSA activity was expressed by the aqueous extracts and the high level anti-MDRSA activity was shown by the ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina respectively. From this we conclude and suggest that the ethanolic and methanolic extracts of these mangrove plant species can be preferred when one wants to perform an in-vitro anti-bacterial assay with the leaf extracts of Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina, and can avoid testing with the aqueous extract by which one can save time, energy and economy and the Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina leaves may be considered as one of the major sources for the production of the effective drugs to control the multi-drug resistant infections with MDRSA strains.

  9. Kikuchi's disease: A case report from West India Download Article

    Dhukiya Ramniwas, Kajla ramakishan, Dhukiya Saroj, Chouhan S.P, Khedar Rakesh kumar, Sinwar Prabhu dyal.
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (322-325)
    • No of Download = 115

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    Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD), or histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, is a rare benign, self-limiting cervical lymphadenitis of unknown etiology. It closely mimic infective and immunological disorders. In this case report we report a 20-year-old male of west presented with multiple neck swellings and fever of 15 days duration. Clinical Examination revealed unilateral large, mobile and tender-cervical lymphadenopathy. Lymph nodes were not palpable in other parts of the body. Examination of other systems was normal. Routine hematological parameters were within normal limits. ESR was 90mm/1st hr. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the right supraclavicular cervical node showed features suggestive of reactive lymphadenitis. After that, lymph node biopsy was done and the histological features suggested the diagnosis of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease. The Patient was treated symptomatically with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the lymph nodes regressed in four weeks. Conclusion- Although the incidence of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease is rare, Kikuchi Fujimoto disease is considered a disorder with a self-limited course and af avorable outcome.

  10. Prevalence of non-fermenter as uro pathogen in tertiary care hospital in Chidambaram, Tamil nadu Download Article

    Vijayakumar J, Lakshmi Sarayu K, V.Udaya
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (326-333)
    • No of Download = 83

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    Background and Objectives: Aerobic, nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli (non-fermenters) are now emerging as important uropathogens. This study was done to know the prevalence of non-fermenters in Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) along with their antibiotic sensitivity. Method: 1361 mid stream urine specimens received in 18 months period from December 2012 to July 2014 were subjected to Gram, staining, semi-quantitative culture, biochemical tests and antibiotic sensitivity testing as per the standard procedures in the routine microbiology laboratory and the results were noted. Results: Out of the 317 culture positive cases with significant bactereuria, 131 (9.7%) were caused by non-fermenters. Among the non-fermenters, Pseudomonas spp. was the most common (80.6%) followed by Acinetobacter spp. (19.3%). Majority of patients belonged to the age group of 15 to 50 years and most of them were females. Antibiotic sensitivity testing revealed that, among Pseudomonas spp., 77.4% isolates were sensitive to Piperacillin, 71.13% sensitive to Amikacin, 41.9% sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, 35.4% sensitive to Ceftazidime and 90% sensitive to Imipenem. In the case of Acinetobacter spp., 68% isolates were sensitive to Amikacin, 33.3% sensitive to Norfloxacin and all were sensitive to imipenem. Out of the 6 non-fermenter isolates which were resistant to commonly used antibiotics, 4 were from inpatients indicating the possibility of nosocomial infection. Conclusion: The non-fermenters are emerging as important cause of Urinary Tract Infections. In this study, Pseudomonas spp. was the most common non-fermenter isolated in significant numbers in MSU specimens. But, Acinetobacter spp. appeared to be more resistant to invitro antibiotics in general.

  11. Sleep is a complex programme in-built in the human body naturally Download Article

    Amit Swarnakar, T.Borah, D. Baruah, B.K.Bharali
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (334-339)
    • No of Download = 153

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    Sleep, one of the greatest gifts showered to the human society by the grace of god. Sleep brings peace and harmony in one’s life. Sleep is a natural process or in the broad sense it can be said that, it is a programme that is built in the human body. The human brain is like a battery and it needs seven hour sleep to get recharged. Ayurveda, the origin of Indian system of medicine has given priority for proper sleep. Ayurveda has regarded sleep as one of the sub-pillars of the human life. As the human society is changing day by day the longevity of the human world is also declining day by day and here it can be said that improper sleep can be regarded as one of the liable factor for changing the physiological de-arrangement of the human body. Due to the de-arrangement of the physiological process, several clinical characteristics are prevailing in the human society which is not a good feature for the human world. Ayurveda has given a very distinct thought in this regard and said that improper sleep can even lead to death of the person.

  12. Primary osteosarcoma of the breast- A case report Download Article

    Dhukiya Ramniwas, Dhukiya Saroj, Kajla Ramakishna, Khedar Rakesh, Sinwar Prabhu Dayal
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (340-343)
    • No of Download = 192

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    Primary extra-osseous osteogenic sarcomas in the breast is extremely rare. It can arise as a result of osseous Primary extra-osseous osteogenic sarcomas have been reported in many tissues of the body metaplasia in a pre-existing benign or malignant neoplasm of the breast or as non-phylloides sarcoma from the soft tissue of a previously normal breast. Case presentation: A 45 year-old north indian woman was clinically diagnosed to have carcinoma of the right breast. The histology report of excisional biopsy of the mass showed a malignant neoplasm comprising islands of chondroblastic and osteoblastic stromal cells. This report changed the diagnosis from carcinoma to osteogenic sarcoma of the breast. Sections from the lumpectomy specimen confirmed the diagnosis of osteogenic sarcoma. She lost in follow-up. Conclusion: A diagnosis of osteogenic sarcoma of the breast was made based on histology report and after excluding an osteogenic sarcoma arising from underlying ribs and sternum.

  13. Screening and isolation of medicinally important L-asparaginase enzyme from a newly isolated species Download Article

    M.Sunitha
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (344-351)
    • No of Download = 147

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    The L-Asparaginase activity was determined by detection of ammonia or L-aspartic acid. The assay procedure is based on direct Nesslerization of ammonia. The Nine samples were collected at various places of Andhra Pradesh with a viewto isolate potent L-Asparaginase producing microorganisms.A total of 148 colonies were selected and isolated from all the samples based on Lasparaginase enzyme producing microbial strains were identified by their pink colour zones around the colonies. The selected isolates were transferred onto nutrient agar slants and incubated for 24 h. Out of 148 isolates, 46 were selected based on their macroscopic characters, eliminating those that appeared close to each other. The secondary screening was carried out for detection of L-asparaginase positive cultures.After secondary screening, better enzyme producing isolates (5 numbers) were selected and they are designated as MS-3, MS-6, MS-8, MS-11 and MS-15. Among them, the strain MS-6 showed the maximum enzyme production, hence further studies were focused on this strain. For the identification of the promising isolate MS-6, the preliminary morphological, physiological, biochemical tests, utilization of carbon and nitrogen sources were done in our laboratory. A detailed screening of the literature indicated that our isolate is closely related to B. cereus. Hence, the cultural properties of our isolate were compared with reportedproperties of B. cereus. In view of the general agreement and more similarities and a few differences, our isolate MS-6 can be considered to be as a new strain of cereus.

  14. Some new facts on irritable bowel syndrome - Part II Download Article

    Prof.D.N.Tripathi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (352-357)
    • No of Download = 127

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    Irritable Bowel Syndrome took nearly 70-100 years to understand with the first disclosure of discovery due probably to Portal Infection in July 2013 by the present author. Here we shall discuss all those facts which were never thought of earlier by millions and millions of medical personnel who presented their findings in the internet. Here we present our own findings forthwith.

  15. To evaluate the awareness about human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine in the prevention of cervical cancer amongst the medical students: A KAP study Download Article

    Abhijeet D Joshi, Sagar B Bhagat, Ketaki C Patil, Rohini S Gambre, Sadiq B Patel.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (358-366)
    • No of Download = 155

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    Cervical cancer is the fifth most common cancer in humans, the second most common cancer in women worldwide and the most common cancer cause of death in the developing countries like India. An observational, cross sectional, questionnaire based study conducted in Grant Govt. Medical College & Sir JJ Group of Hospital among 500 medical students of either sex who were either in II year or passed II year of their curriculum. 500 students participated in the study. 480 (96%) were aware of the causative agent of cervical cancer. 346(69.4%) participants were aware regarding the availability of vaccine against cervical cancer. 281(56.2%) of participants were aware that HPV Vaccine is available in India. Overall awareness regarding target population for HPV Vaccination was 138(27.6%). 319 (63.8%) participants knew by which route HPV Vaccine is administered and 187(37.4%) knew when is the vaccine most effective. Unfortunately only 30 (6%) participants were vaccinated. Most common source of information for our study population was electronic media 269(53.4%) such as internet. 398 (79.6%) participants thought most important problem is inadequate information. Only 176 (35.8%) participants thought HPV vaccine is needed for men also and 377(75.4%) participants believed that it is necessary to screen the vaccinated person also. Overall only 67.8% participants showed their acceptance for HPV vaccine. Majority of the participants were lacking knowledge about HPV vaccine in all aspects. Participants have reluctant attitude before onset of this study for this important topic & rarely do they practice it.

  16. An overview on parkinson disease and its pharmacological evaluation methods Download Article

    V.Lavanya, K.K.Senthil kumar, V.N Indulatha, N Thirumoorthy
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (367-371)
    • No of Download = 149

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    Researchers have explored a diversity of clinical and laboratory tests in efforts to differentiate Parkinson’s disease patients from a healthy population multi factorial disease known to result from a variety of factors. Age is the principal risk factor; other etiological mechanisms have been identified, including gene mutations and exposure to toxins. Deregulation of energy metabolism, mostly through the loss of complex I efficiency, is involved in disease progression in both the genetic and sporadic forms of the disease. In support to data analysis, a mathematical model of the relevant metabolic pathways was developed and calibrated onto experimental data. Diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD) and risk factors or early symptoms amenable to population-based screening, systematic review and meta-analysis of risk factors for Parkinson’s disease.

  17. Effectiveness of clinical pharmacist intervention on smoking secession Download Article

    Beula.V, Sattanathan.K*, Sambathkumar.R.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (372-388)
    • No of Download = 204

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    This work was carried out in a tertiary-care hospital at Calicut,kerala The patients under study will be included, males, children and even females aging between 17 – 75 years with lungs disease, hypertension, coronary artery disease, Asthma, carcinoma and allergic complaints. The study evaluated the effectiveness of a hospital initiated smoking cessation intervention by a clinical pharmacist that included 3 months of follow up and also analyzed the baseline demographics of smokers. The pharmacist-managed Smoking Cessation program successfully aided approximately more than half its participants to quit smoking at 1 and 3 months. Although higher attendance rates increase cessation rates, steps could be taken in order to effectively maximize the pharmacist’s time and minimize patient commitment, while also achieving the best patient outcomes. The most common reasons for quitting smoking were a concern with the current health status and a concern with the future health status.

  18. Profile of burn cases in haryana Download Article

    Dr.Kamal Singla, Dr.S.K.Dhattarwal, Dr.Ashish Singla, Dr.Varun Garg, Dr.Tarun Dagar.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (389-391)
    • No of Download = 152

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    Burns recorded in vital statistics represents a catastrophic injury: catastrophic in the overwhelming insult to the patients, catastrophic in its psychological aspects and catastrophic in cost and suffering to the family involved. A severe burn is the most devastating injury a person can sustain and yet hope to survive. It is a common catastrophe today as burn injury cases are one of the common emergencies admitted to any hospital. As the etiological factors of the burn injuries vary considerably in different communities, careful analysis of the epidemiological features in every community is needed before a sound prevention programme can be planned and implemented. The present study was carried out in the department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology of PGIMS and GH (General Hospital) Rohtak, Haryana and total 448 cases were collected for this study purpose. Female victims were most commonly affected as compared to male victims. The majority of deaths 182 (40.62%) occured between 20-40 years of age group followed by 84(18.75%) between age group of 40-60 years. Married females were most common victim compare to unmarried one. The majority of burn deaths were accidental (85.26%) in nature followed by suicidal (8.03%) and homicidal deaths (6.69%).

  19. Laxative effect on methanol extracts of leaves of Basella alba Download Article

    Dr.Shankara sharma, N.Sriram.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (392-394)
    • No of Download = 152

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    The present study was aimed to evaluate scientifically the laxative effect of methanolic extract of leaves of Basella alba. (MEBA) was studied on experimental albino rats. The laxative effect was expressed as the faecal output at 8hrs and 16hrs.MEBA at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly increased (P<0.001) the faecal output in albino rats. The results obtained for establishing the efficacy and substantiate the traditional uses as a laxative agent. Further studies are needed to completely understand the mechanism of laxative effect of Basella alba.

  20. Assessment of risk factors and medication adherence of chronic kidney disease patients in a tertiary care teaching hospital Download Article

    Syeda Sunaina Firdous, Ayesha Siddiqua, K.Navaneetha, P.Srujana, S.Mahesh kumar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (395-400)
    • No of Download = 131

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    Objective The main objective of this study was to assess the risk factors and medication adherence for CKD patients in rural tertiary care teaching hospital by using risk assessment form and morisky medication adherence questionnaire form respectively. Methods These forms contain closed ended questionnaires. It is a prospective observational study conducted over a period of six months. Results In this study 300 subjects consisting of 188 (62.7%) men and 112(37.3%) women had chronic kidney disease. In this study Age, gender, BMI, Family history, Smoking and Alcoholic were observed for risk factor assessment and morisky medication adherence scale is used to assess adherence of the patient towards medication. In CKD patients, age is a major risk factor, in which more number of patients of age 41-50 years were 92 (30.7%) found. Commonly seen risk factors were age, gender, BMI, and family history. More no. of patients were highly adherent to their medication i.e., 51.3%. Conclusion By this study we concluded that more number of male CKD patients were exposed to risk factors than female and more patients are highly adherent to their medication.

  21. Acute perforation at the anastomotic site of gastro-jejunostomy for peptic ulcer Download Article

    Mukesh Sharma, Sitaram, Ashok kumar, mahendra , Pukhraj, Dharmveer
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (401-403)
    • No of Download = 147

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    In Gastro jejunostomy the gastric acid comes in contact with jejunal loop directly so the complication of anastomotic site like leak ,hemorrhage stenosis are very common but the ulcer perforation is very rare and seldom reported in the available literature. We report a case of 45-year-old male who developed perforation at the jejunal side of the anastomosis of the old gastrojejunostomy for peptic ulcer perforation.

  22. A study to assess the effectiveness of benson’s relaxation therapy on stress and coping among mothers with high risk pregnancy admitted at antenatal wards of sri ramachandra hospital Download Article

    Neethu Mariam Philip, G.Sumathi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (404-409)
    • No of Download = 260

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    High risk pregnancy is a condition which can affect the health of mother and baby. High risk pregnancy results in longer hospitalisation which leads to increased stress and decreased coping mechanisms in the mother. Relaxation techniques are simple and cost effective methods which help in reducing stress and enhancing coping. Benson’s relaxation therapy can reduce the stress level and thereby improve coping ability among mothers with high risk pregnancy. A pre-experimental study was taken up in Sri Ramachandra Hospital, Chennai to assess the effectiveness of Benson’s Relaxation Therapy on stress and coping among mothers with high risk pregnancy. The sample included 30 mothers with high risk pregnancy. The findings of the study depicted the evidence of significant difference between pre and post test values of stress and coping. There was a statistically significant difference in the stress and coping scores after the intervention at the level of p<0.001. When stress decreases coping among mothers with high risk pregnancy increases. This highlights the effectiveness of Benson’s relaxation therapy in reducing the level of stress and enhancing coping among mothers with high risk pregnancy.

  23. Myxofibrosarcoma of the male breast – An infrequent neoplasm: A case report and comprehensive review Download Article

    Shagufta Qadri, Feroz Alam, Nida Shamim, Divya Rabindranath, Mohammed Naim, Kiran Alam
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (410-414)
    • No of Download = 252

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    Primary breast sarcoma is a rare type of malignancy arising from the mesenchymal tissue of the breast and represent less than 1% of all breast cancers. We report a rare case of myxofibrosarcoma in a 25 year old male patient, who presented with rapidly enlarging mass, in his right breast extending upto right axilla since 5 month, the patient also had history of right breast lumpectomy 2 years back. On the basis of history, clinical examination and fine needle aspiration cytology a provisional diagnosis of stromal sarcoma breast with myxoid change was made. However histopathological examination and the immunohistochemical analysis lead to a conclusive diagnosis of myxofibrosarcoma breast with local recurrence. Myxofibrosarcoma shows a predilection for multiple local recurrences, tendency of low-grade tumour to recur at higher grades and potential metastasis which emphasizes the need for accurate diagnosis and excision in specialized centres.

  24. Research on case studies of patients admitted in hospital: A basic necessity to overcome adverse drug events Download Article

    Ayesha Siddiqua, Yelamanchili Manasa, Yelamanchili Mounika
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (415-419)
    • No of Download = 199

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    The study of ADRs is the concern of the field known as pharmacovigilance. An adverse drug event refers to any injury caused by the drug and any harm associated with the use of the drug (e.g. discontinuation of drug therapy). ADRs are a special type of adverse drug events Adverse drug events are defined as unwanted response to a therapeutic drug. This is a research study which infers the statistical collection of data from approximately 293 cases which are collected from private medical college hospital at mahabubnagar. Complications arising from drug treatment are the most common cause of adverse events in hospital inpatients.

  25. New facts on irritable bowel syndrome. Part III. Download Article

    D.N.Tripathi
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (420-432)
    • No of Download = 143

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    SIBO, (Small intestine bacterial overgrowth) is an increase in the number of bacteria or a change Past discovery on the Causes of IBS had stated that there is overgrowth in the type of Irritable Bowel Syndrome is an ailment that effects more than ten percent of the general population in many countries world wide. We present here one of the most important discovery in the History of Medicine in the 20th and 21st century that affects the fate and future of over 60 million people ravaged by false notions and promises of the past. The present study was planned sometime in 1948 when some cases were taken up for observation and treatment. At this time every physician were very confused and they all named it as Chronic colitis.

  26. Effect of lung squeezing technique for correcting atelectasis in mechanically ventilated preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome Download Article

    Neha J Thacker and Neha S Patel
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (433-438)
    • No of Download = 311

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    Background Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is the primary cause of neonatal mortality¹ usually occurring in infants of less than 35 weeks of gestation.² In the surfactant deficient lung of preterm infants with respiratory distress, an unstable state occurs between alveoli, leading to diffuse atelectasis.³Various manual techniques like conventional chest physiotherapy (CCP) and lung squeezing technique (LST) are used in neonatal settings to mobilize secretions, enhance mucociliary clearance and reexpanding the atelectatic regions of the lung.9,10However the available evidences of comparing the effectiveness of both techniques are very few. Objective: To test the efficacy of Lung Squeezing Technique with that of Conventional Chest Physiotherapy for correcting atelectasis in mechanically ventilated pre term infants with RDS. Study design: Experimental study Method: With parental consent, 30 infants with gestational ages of less than 37 weeks who required mechanical ventilation and with presence of a segmental or lobar collapse confirmed on a chest X-ray, were randomly enrolled into this study. Fifteen infants in LST and CCP each.Chest radiograph was taken three days after intervention as outcome measure. Result: After three days of intervention program Lung squeezing technique showed statistically higher improvement compared with the conventional chest physiotherapy. Conclusion: LST is more effective in correcting atelectasis as compared to CCP technique in mechanically ventilated preterm infants with RDS. LST is less stressful and practically convenient technique than CCP technique.

  27. In vivo study wound healing potential (incision) of herbal formulation Download Article

    Mohammed Wasiullah, A.Pandurangan, Aftab ahmad, Fahad A Al-Abbasi, Munesh Mani, Prashant Chandra.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (439-447)
    • No of Download = 210

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    Lygodium flexuosum is a climbing fern it is the sole genus in the family Lygodiaceae, though it is included in the family Schizaceae by some botanist. It occurs on mangrove and had tree dominated habitat sub division is petridophyte and had life form of cryptophytes category. It is commonly epiphytically grows on moss covered tree trunks, branches a lithophytes on shady boulders along with moss and in Thailand its habitat is in abundance. The present study has demonstrated that an ethanol extract of Lygodium flexuosum leaves extract has properties that render it capable of promoting accelerated wound healing activity compared with the controls. Wound contraction increased tensile strength, increased hydroxyproline content. It is used in external applications for rheumatism, sprains, scabies, eczema and cut wounds, they are reported to be particularly useful for carbuncles, reduce inflammation and acts as panacea for wounds, treat ulcer, various respiratory diseases, general disorders, muscles sprains. In pharmacological studies Wound healing activity was done and it was observed that topically administered drugs are effective in faster wound contraction due to the larger availability at the wound site. A significant increase in wound contraction was seen in both doses of ELF compared to control. Hence it appears that ELF has prohealing effect.

  28. A study on electrolyte abnormalities following consumption of poisoning compound Download Article

    Manjunathan N, Thirugnanam P, Prabhu R, Balaji M, Swaminathan P
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (448-452)
    • No of Download = 297

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    Aim: To assess and evaluate the type of electrolyte abnormality in poisonings. Methodology: After permission from ethical committee the present study was conducted in 50 adults patient, of either sex aged 14- 70 years with history of consumption of poisonous compounds between the periods of Jan 2013 to June 2014. Patient who consume the following compounds will be taken for this study are Organophosphorus poisoning, Organochlorine poisoning, Oleander poisoning, Dhatura poisoning, Aluminum and zinc phosphide poisoning. Age less than 14 years, Corrosive poisoning, Patients with pre-existing cardiac disorder, renal disorder, uncontrolled hypertension, endocrine disorders, established hematological disorder are excluded from the study. Results: 76% of study patients were survived and 24% of the study patients were expired. Out of 24% who were expired, 16% death were due nature of poison consumed. Remaining 8% deaths were due to electrolyte abnormalities. Serumelectrolyteswerenormalinmostofthepatient.Hypokalemiafollowed by hypernatremia was most common electrolyte derangements in the study. Mortality rate was more in elderly group. Conclusion: At admission 16% of patients had hyponatremia, 54% of patients had normal serum sodium level and 30% of patients had hypernatremia. At admission 8% of patients had Hypokalemia, 60% of patients had normal potassium and 32% of patients had hyperkalemia. Mortality rate was more in elderly group.

  29. Antimicrobial effect of emblica officinalis and cayratiapedata against helicobacter pylori Download Article

    N.Rajkumar, G. Shanthi ,V. Shantha Sheela , and S.Selvakumar.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (453-458)
    • No of Download = 194

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    Helicobacter pylori have been attracting worldwide attention as a major factor or cofactor responsible for gastritis and peptic ulcer. To eradicate this micro-organism, numerous regimes containing various antimicrobial agents have been suggested. However, H.pylori antimicrobial resistance is a leading factor to treatment failure and recurrence of the disease. Traditional medicine based on herbal remedies has always played key role in the health system of many countries. Clinical research has confirmed the efficacy of several medicinal plants for the treatment of gastro-duodenal disease, and basic scientific research has uncovered mechanisms to explain their therapeutic effects, hence we have compared two plant extracts such as Emblica officinalis and Cayratiapedata for the antimicrobial activity of H.pylori. Thirty patients attending the OPD of Rajah Muthiah medical college and hospital, for Acid peptic disease (ulcer and non ulcer type) were subjected to endoscopy at RMMCH, Annamalai University, Chidambaram. Antral biopsies were collected from the patients with gastritis, duodentis, duodenal ulcer, non- ulcer dyspepsia and gastric carcinoma. All the biopsy specimens were processed for H.pylori by Gram´s stain, urease test and culture. All the positive culture was processed for the Antimicrobial resistance by Disk Diffusion Method. The minimum inhibition zone diameter of Emblica officinalis and Cayaratiapedata were detected. Emblica officinalis and Cayratiapedata exhibited potential of in-vitro antimicrobial activity against H.pylori, which suggests that it may be useful for the treatment of H.pylori infection.

  30. Prevalence of rare dermtoses manifesting at intertrigenous areas – A prospective study Download Article

    Praneeth NG, Prasad PVS, Kaviarasan PK.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (459-467)
    • No of Download = 137

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    Background Intertrigo, or intertriginous dermatitis, may be defined as inflammation resulting from moisture trapped in skin folds subjected to friction Several infections, predominantly fungal, bacterial and mixed infections, eczemas, vesicobullous disorders, papulosquamous diseases can manifest at the intertrigenous areas, when left unattended may lead to chronicity of the illness, serious complications and morbidities. Aims & objectives To study the rare dermatoses at intertrigenous areas with predisposing factors and clinical presentations and to correlate the dermatoses with obesity. Results In our study of 180 patients, candidal intertrigo was present in 42 patients, mechanical intertrigo was diagnosed in 30 cases, irritant contact dermatitis was present in 16 patients and acanthosis nigricans in 20 patients.Eleven patients in the study were diagnosed with tinea cruris, 9 with bacterial intertrigo 8 cases with atopic dermatitis. Tinea pedis was present in 7cases. Intertrigo with both bacterial and fungal infections was diagnosed in 6 cases, seborrhoeic dermatitis in 5 patients and tinea versicolor in 4 patients. Rarer dermatoses like inverse psoriasis were present in 7 cases, Hailey Hailey disease was diagnosed in 3 cases and Darier’s disease in 2 cases. 1 case each of hidradenitis suppurativa, pemphigus vegetans and trichomycosis axillaris were present in the study. Conclusion There was no significant difference in the distribution of dermatoses age group, sex of these patients. Even though a few patients were categorized as grade I and II obese, majority occurred in non obese category. Factors like climate, environment, occlusion and tight dressing were the other predisposing factors. Hence most of the intertrigenus dermatoses could be prevented by taking all measures to prevent occlusion and improving skin hygiene.

  31. New ideas on mosquito control Download Article

    Prof.D.N.Tripathi.
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (468-473)
    • No of Download = 174

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    This is a story of bringing together a tiny roundworm to eat the entire family of growing mosquitoes and their children in all the bushes, near our abode.. It is a problem worrying the human race for thousands of years and has never been solved. As the Principal of a medical college, one day I invited a learned Professor of Zoology of a nearby college to discuss with me how we could initiate a research work on the control of mosquitoes with psychedelic or drug LSD added to their food in captivity. He gladly dropped in my office for this particular subject when I told him that an assistant professor of mine has successfully killed hundreds of large garden rats with molasses- balls and Magnesium sulphate ( a severe Purgative) laced with tasty cheese that killed them with severe diarrhea and dehydration. My friend heard all this story and suggested that he had a better idea than all those carried out world-wide in the past, but for want of money and helping men he never could initiate and carry out this research work. He advised me to apply to Indian Council of Medical Research for a financial grant. So we jointly prepared a scheme and sent it to Delhi, I.C.M.R., Director for a suitable grant when I was convinced that his idea was an extra-ordinary one never thought of by any one.

  32. Swaying biosimilars market Download Article

    R.Kumanan, N.Sriram, Aziza Tahaseen, A.Susmitha, R.Kishore Kumar
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (474-479)
    • No of Download = 141

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    Biosimilars are having massive demand in future in order to provide good quality therapy for human well-being. Biosimilars also pronounced as biologics / biopharmaceuticals / follow-on biologics / subsequent entry biologics (SEB’s) with the statement of a biopharmaceutical drug deigned to have active properties similar to one that has previously been licensed. As per WHO biosimilars are defined as “a bio therapeutic product which is similar in terms of quality, safety and efficacy to an already licensed referenced bio therapeutic product”. Biosimilars can relieve the financial burden on healthcare systems and expand patient accessibility. This review embraces the significance, regulatory consideration, available regulatory guidelines and current market scenario on biosimilars.

  33. Achlorhydria and cirrhosis of liver Download Article

    Prof.D.N.Tripathi
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (480-483)
    • No of Download = 166

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    When a person suffers from repeated indigestion he goes to a doctor for help who examines him and gives a prescription. In medical practice it is a common occurrence to think of the ailment as peptic ulcer due to hyper-acidity and prescribe at first an alkaline drug. But a person with achlorohydria gets no relief and he is advised to continue it for days and months as a resistant case of a very active duodenal ulcer.An achlorohydria patient usually gets now and then due to helicobacter infection diarrhea with loss of protein digestion resulting in weight loss and discomfort. To order for a Fractional Test Meal is a hard task as such facilities do not exist in even Medical College Hospitals and all doctors are biased that such a condition mentioned in text books do not really exist. He visits some more doctors but the verdict remains the same. Ultimately after some years he is an established case of cirrhosis liver. Failure of protein digestion with severe loss of nutrition and body mass has reached its end. Even some have done gastro jejunostomy.

  34. Effectiveness of structured education on airway management among nursing students Download Article

    Angel Rajakumari.G, Soli.T.K
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (484-488)
    • No of Download = 201

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    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of structured education on knowledge and attitude on airway management among nursing students. Participants and setting: A pre experimental one group pretest posttest design was adopted for this study. The study was conducted in Vandhana school of Nursing, Kodhad, telugana, India. The investigator selected 50 nursing students who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected by using simple random sampling technique. Intervention: Data was collected regarding demographic variable, knowledge and attitude of the nursing students on airway management. The investigator assessed the level of knowledge and attitude of the nursing students by using structured questionnaire and modified three point Likert Scale and by using checklist through one to one teaching by lecture, demonstration, video clippings and verbalization. Structured teaching programme was conducted on the same day on group wise each group consists of 18 members. Data collection was done in English the questionnaire was distributed to each nursing students. At the end of the teaching the doubts were cleared. Then 10 minutes was allotted for discussion. Measurement and findings: The analysis finding indicates clearly that 31% of students had inadequate knowledge and 60% of them had negative attitude regarding airway management. A well planned structured teaching programme given to the same group. The effectiveness of programme showed high level of significant at p<0.001 level. It showed that structured teaching programme was an effective method to improve the knowledge and attitude. Conclusion: The study concluded that nursing student’s knowledge and attitude regarding airway management was inadequate thus structured education helps to enhance the knowledge.

  35. Anemia in pregnancy women a case study Download Article

    Angel Rajakumari.G, Sunitha M, Soli.T.K
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (489-490)
    • No of Download = 259

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    The prevalence of anemia in pregnancy women at Nirmala Hospital, Suryapet, was carried out purposely to determine the haematocit values, and to see whether it is advisable to prescriber supplement iron and folate in the form of tablets to pregnant women. Blood samples were collected from 100 percent women attending the hospital. The blood samples were analyzed. Questionnaires were also used, purposely to reinforce the results obtained from haematocrit method. The haematocrit values obtained show that pregnant women were not affected by previous birth, level of education to some extent and age group of pregnant women. The mean PVC falls within 25.25% - 32.75% of the total number observed. The total means PVC is 26.02%.

  36. First trimester hyperemesis gravidarum: A case report Download Article

    Angel Rajakumari.G, Sunitha M, Soli.T.K
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (491-493)
    • No of Download = 311

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    Hyperemesis gravidarum, the most severe form of nausea and emesis during pregnancy, can seriously affect the health and well-being of the pregnant woman and her unborn fetus. Intravenous fluids, antiemetic medications and dietary manipulation can be tried initially. If these interventions are not effective, several investigations have shown rapid relief of nausea and vomiting, achievement of nutrition goals and successful pregnancy outcomes after the initiation of gastric enteral feeding. This article will review diet, medications and the use of enteral feeding in patients with hyperemesis gravidarum.The aim of this case report is to highlight the clinical presentation and transient phenomenon of gestational transient hyperthyroidism with hyperemesis gravid arum, and also to emphasize on the recommended management.

  37. Spatial and verbal memory in different trimesters of pregnancy: A prospective study Download Article

    Mohd Imtiyaz Shaikh, Varsha N. Mane, Gosai B B, Prabha V, Danasegaran M, Pradeep Kumar Vegi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (494-496)
    • No of Download = 279

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    The present study was aimed to observe spatial and verbal memory changes during different trimesters of pregnancy. The present study has been conducted in 80 Antenatal patients (20-35 years) who were diagnosed with pregnancy for the first time without any pathology. Spatial and verbal memory test was used to assess cognition. Data was analyzed by SPSS 20.0. Data was presented as mean ±SD and P value <0.05 was considered as significant. One way ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD Post-hoc Test was applied to observe the significance. Significant decrease in spatial memory was observed in second and third trimesters, when compared with first trimester. Verbal memory was not significantly changed in second trimester. However, in third trimester verbal memory decreased significantly when compared with second trimester. We have observed decline in memory during pregnancy. However, generalizations are not possible in this area as the study was conducted in only one centre. We recommend similar studies with higher sample size and involving multiple centers to understand the cognitive changes during pregnancy.

  38. An approach of clinical pharmacist in minimising length of hospital stay of patients and rational use of antimicrobials Download Article

    Mohd Wasiullah, Anil Middha, A. Pandurangan
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (497-509)
    • No of Download = 35

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    Irrational drug therapy remains a global phenomenon. The mean number of drugs per prescription should be as low as possible since higher figure always leads to increased risk of drug interaction, development of bacterial resistance, affect patient compliance and increases costs. The aim of present study is to reduce patient stay in inpatient setting. This may be studied by involving the factor like Drug interaction, Percentage of amount spent on anti-microbial (cost of therapy). This study will help for promoting the rational use of antimicrobials along with the reduction in hospital stay of the patient. The study was done in three wards of pediatric of MMIMSR.200 cases of anemia and 100 cases of UTI were collected during the pre intervention and post intervention studies.P1 was placed as a control while wards. P2 and P3 were placed as tests during the adherence study. The percentage of anemic patient at the time of admission in both the categories was severe 30% and mild to moderate was 70% during pre intervention but in post intervention it was found 22% and 82% respectively. 72% patient having mild to moderate anemia in pre intervention study. While it was 82.88% in post intervention studies. It is clear that the maximum percentages of the patient are those suffering from mild to moderate anemia. Patients when they were classified on the basis of associated infection it was found that 3.33% and 31.88% had infection during pre-Intervention and Post-Intervention studies. While for mild to moderate it was found 85.70% and 85.36% in pre-Intervention and Post-Intervention studies respectively.

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