Articles

  1. A case report on Amlodipine induced pedal edema-pitting type Download Article

    A Arjun Kumar, R Siddarama, M Javeed Baig, Gangula Amareswara Reddy, R Rohith.
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (70-73)
    • No of Download = 305

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    Amlodipine is a 4th generation dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker which is permitted for the treatment of essential hypertension and angina pectoris. The main mechanism of calcium channel blockers are blocks the voltage sensitive L-type calcium channels by binding to alpha-1 subunit, so prevent the entry of calcium in to the cells finally no excitation-contraction coupling in the heart and vascular smooth muscles. It is absorbed slowly after oral administration. But its bioavailability is high. It has a longer duration of action than nefidipine. It dilates both peripheral as well as coronary vessels. It is an alternative anti-hypertensive drug for patients with Nefidipine induced pedal edema. This drug is expected to produce a more incidence of pedal oedema, as compared to Nefidipine and other calcium channel blockers, based on the limited data available from clinical trials. The common adverse effects of Amlodipine are nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, dry mouth, constipation, gingival hypertrophy, dizziness, heartburn, photosensitivity, headache, light headedness and insomnia. We report a case of Amlodipine induced pedal edema.

  2. Mesenteric fibromatosis with involvement of colon, mimicking as gastrointestinal stromal tumor- A case report Download Article

    Dr. Hrushikesh S Kolhe, Dr. Sadhana D Mahore, Dr. Revati Patil, Dr. Mahendra Parage, Dr. Kalpana A Bothale4, Dr. Anne Wilkinson, Dr. Neha Dalal
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (74-78)
    • No of Download = 266

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    Mesenteric Fibromatosis is a locally aggressive myofibroblastic proliferation of the mesentery and adjacent tissues that lack the capacity to metastasize. Mesenteric Fibromatosis (MF) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are distinct lesions, but they are often confused with each other. Although rare, it is the most common primary tumor of the mesentery and can develop at any age. Here, we describe a rare case of primary Intra-abdominal Fibromatosis involving the mesentery and transverse colon in a 50 year old female which clinically, grossly and histologically mimicked gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Immunohistochemistry was done which revealed that the tumor mass showed focal coarse granular positivity for c-kit (CD117), while negative for CD34, DOG, desmin, S-100 and SMA. Furthermore, tumor mass showed over expression of β-catenin. This confirmed the diagnosis of localized mesenteric fibromatosis. Correct identification of both the entities (GIST & Fibromatosis) is of utmost importance as they differ vastly in therapeutic and prognostic considerations.

  3. A case report on Atropine induced CNS side effects and Tachycardia Download Article

    R SiddaRama, M Javeed Baig, A Arjun Kumar.
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (79-81)
    • No of Download = 404

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    Atropine is an anti-cholinergic, prototype of drug obtained from Atropa Belladonna. It mainly blocks the muscarinic receptors which place a major role in performance of the brain for learning, memory, and orientation. In the therapeutic dose, atropine has a mild CNS stimulant effect but large doses can produce excitement, restlessness, agitation, hallucinations, coma and death. In therapeutic dose of atropine produces tachycardia through the blockage of M2 receptors of the heart. The use of atropine includes, brad arrhythmias, Severe bradycardia, organophosphate poisoning, 1st degree A-V block, salivary and bronchial secretion reduction. the extreme doses of atropine can causes the tachycardia, delirium, coma, flushed and hot skin, blurred vision, excitement, restlessness, hallucinations and ataxia. Here in this case report, a 30 years old female patient was developed excitement, hallucinations, restlessness, blurring of vision, photophobia, tachycardia, palpitation medullary paralysis and ECG abnormalities due to the atropine administration.

  4. A case report on Ceftriaxone induced Hypersensitivity Reactions (Urticaria) Download Article

    A Arjun Kumar1, R Siddarama*2, M Javeed Baig2, Gangula Amareswara Reddy2
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (82-84)
    • No of Download = 366

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    Ceftriaxone is a third generation cephalosporin group of broad spectrum anti-biotic. It active against the gram positive and gram negative organisms. Which is commonly used antibiotic in patients with various infections like respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, enteric fever and meningitis. Hypersensitive reactions subsequent ceftriaxone therapy is unusual but is potentially life-threatening. It is rapidly occurring reactions, hence called immediate hypersensitivity reactions. Whenever the patient exposure to certain drugs (penicillin, cephalosporin's and aspirin ) production of IgE antibodies – fix to mast cells then again re-exposure to the same drug antigen-antibody reaction occurs on the mast cell surface then release of inflammatory mediators like histamine, 5-HT, PGs, LTs, PAF these mediators cause the hypotension, bronchospasm, angioedema, urticarial, rhinitis and anaphylactic shock. The management of hypersensitivity reactions which include inj.Adrenalin 0.3 to 0.5ml, intramuscularly, inj.Hydrocortisone 100 to200 mg, intravenously, inj. Pheniramine 45 mg intravenously. Here we report a 28 years female who presented with the hypersensitivity reactions with ceftriaxone therapy.

  5. Evaluation of the rationality and cost comparison of fixed dose combinations of antibiotics in a tertiary care hospital Download Article

    V. Shivashankar, Pribin Thomas, Muhammed Aslam V.P, Pooja K Salian, Simin Sabu Jacob, Sojan P Paul
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (85-89)
    • No of Download = 184

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    The development of fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) is becoming increasingly important from a public health perspective. Such combinations of drugs are being used in the treatment of a wide range of conditions. The use of fixed dose combinations of antibiotics is more prevalent in the recent years. The FDC antibiotic use must be limited because; a single antibiotic can be used effectively in most infections caused by a single organism. Furthermore, a single wide-spectrum antibiotic may be used in many mixed infections. The main objective of the study was to assess the prescription pattern and rationality of Fixed Dose Combinations of antibiotics using seven- point criteria. A Prospective- Observational Study was conducted among 102 patients for 9 months. The data from the cases were evaluated. The FDCs prescribed were thoroughly analyzed by seven point criteria to evaluate the rationality. The demographics of study population showed that male population was predominant. The diagnosis study population revealed that major infections were LRTI (26%) and UTI (20%). The culture sensitivity test was performed in 31.3% of study population to choose the appropriate antibiotic. The results of culture sensitivity tests showed that the most commonly isolated organisms were E.coli and S.pneumonia. A total number of 455 drugs were prescribed in the study population from which 22% were identified as FDC antibiotics. The commonly prescribed FDCs was Pipercillin+Tazobactum accounting for 34%. The seven point criteria analysis reveals 5 out of 8 FDCs were cost effective than their individual components and were rationally prescribed. By studying and comparing all the evidences obtained, the study concludes that the utilization of FDCs in the study site was found to be rational.

  6. A case report of Antepartum Haemorrhage and Bombay blood group Download Article

    Dr. K.Saradabai, Dr. R.Sujatha.
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (90-92)
    • No of Download = 196

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    A 24 year old woman Primi gravida with seven months period of gestation came from fisherman community, Gangavaram mandalam from low socio economic status, presented with bleeding per vagina since one day. She was admitted in labour room for evaluation and management. There was no history of labour pains or draining per vagina. No history of trauma. She was having regular cycles with moderate flow. And no other medical or surgical complications associated with.On examination the woman was very pale with tachycardia with low blood pressure. Obstetric examination showed the height of uterus 28 weeks which was corresponding to the period of gestation with good fetal heart rate, and uterus relaxed. Speculum examination confirmed that there was no active bleeding other than brownish discharge. Investigations confirmed that she was anaemic with 7G HB, blood group O +ve with non-reactive screening reports. USG showed a single live fetus with 28 weeks of gestation with major degree of Placenta previa.

  7. Clinical and etiological profile of patients with liver abscess Download Article

    M.Rama Devi, M.S.Sridhar, Shankar Reddy Dudala
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (93-99)
    • No of Download = 259

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    Hepatic abscess is the most common extra intestinal manifestation of amoebiasis. The incidence of liver abscess among cases of intestinal amoebiasis varies from 3-17%. Objective: To study the clinical features and etiological factors of patients with Liver abscess. It is a prospective Hospital based study. Patients admitted to medical wards between the period August 2008 and August 2010 in SVRR Government General Hospital, SV Medical College, Tirupati, were selected for the study. Conclusion: Liver abscess is most commonly seen in 40years to 60 years age group with Male to female ratio of 13 to 1.Ethanol consumption and lower socio-economic status are important predisposing factors. Abdominal pain and fever are the common presenting features. Common clinical findings are intercostal tenderness and hepatomegaly.

  8. Factors associated with breast self-examination practices among junior and senior nursing students in baguio city Download Article

    Roy Rillera Marzo, Janet Awisan, Maureen Bawang, Helen Stewart.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (100-114)
    • No of Download = 220

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    Background/Objectives: Breast cancer appears to be a disease of both the developing and developed worlds. It is the leading type of cancer in women. Hence, screening for early detection and diagnosis of diseases and health conditions is an important public health principle. Breast Self Examination (BSE) is a process whereby women examine their breasts regularly to detect any abnormal swelling or lumps in order to seek prompt medical attention. The main aim of the study was to determine the factors associated with breast self-examination among medical allied students in selected universities of Baguio City. Specifically, it sought to investigate the knowledge, attitude and practices of breast self-examination among junior and senior nursing students in Baguio City. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 selected universities in Baguio City using a standard survey questionnaire from September 2-26, 2009. A questionnaire comprising four parts; socio-demographic, knowledge, attitudes, and practices were utilized to gather data. Results: The majority of respondents were young catholic females with no history of breast cancer in the family who had heard about BSE and had information on BSE. The knowledge of the majority on BSE is generally high and above average. Out of seven questions, 76% of the respondents scored average and above average with 6% having perfect score. Only 24% got a score below the mean. On the other hand, the subjects’ practice on BSE is not done on a consistent basis and with correct technique. Thus, it needs improvement even though they had the knowledge of BSE and its benefits. The practicing of BSE by student nurses calls for improvement as they will be the front line personnel educating people who need to perform BSE. Conclusion: The effectiveness of BSE depends on education, compliance, and outreach among women and on conscientious and regular self-examination; therefore, BSE should be thoroughly discussed and demonstrated in the nursing curriculum.

  9. A rare case of solitary plasmacytoma of rib with pleural effusion, unusual presentation Download Article

    Dr. Gunjan S. Loney*, Dr. Kalpana A. Bothale, Dr. Sadhana D. Mahore, Dr. Aliya Niyazi, Dr. Akanksha Bothale
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (115-119)
    • No of Download = 363

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    Solitary plasmacytoma of bone (SPB) is a rare localized lesion that accounts for only 4% of malignant plasma cell tumors. The rib involvement is still rare. We report a case of unsuspected solitary plasmacytoma of rib and subsequent pleural effusion in a 65 year old male patient. The finding of many plasma cells in the pleural fluid cytology led to the diagnosis of SPB. Pleural effusion due to myelomatous involvement is very rare, occurring in less than 1% of patient. Therefore we are reporting this case for its rarity and unusual presentation.

  10. Perceived parenting and mental health among adolescents Download Article

    Jasmine Thomas and Suresh Babu Are
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (120-123)
    • No of Download = 232

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    The present study was undertaken to observe the correlation between parenting and mental health. The present study was an observational study. 50 males and 50 females belonging to age group of 14 to 18 who have been raised by both parents were included in the present study by the convenience sampling method. The Parenting Scale and The Mental Health Battery were used in this study. The results of the study showed that the relationship between perceived parenting and mental health among adolescents was not significant, suggesting that there is not much of a relationship that exists between the two variables. We recommend that further study needs to be done with a higher sample size and also demographic variables such as age, socioeconomic status and gender differences should be taken into consideration.

  11. Anti-cancerous properties of the medicinal herbs mentioned in ayurveda and its availability in the north eastern region of India Download Article

    Dr. Amit Swarnakar, Kangkan Kumar Das, Selim Mehmud
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (124-145)
    • No of Download = 255

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    Ayurveda one of the ancient medical procedures is providing a great impact in the life of human society. Many medicinal herbs are mentioned in Ayurveda having the capacity to mitigate many disease conditions that is prevailing in the human society. In today’s world scientist around the world have shown great interest in medicinal herbs and trying relevantly to get a solution for cancer. The main aim of the article is to reflect anti-cancerous activities of the medicinal herbs mentioned in Ayurveda and its availability in the north eastern states of India.

  12. Road traffic accidents and their relationship with severity of head injury according to type of road user: An epidemiological survey in a tertiary care hospital in Kollam, Kerala Download Article

    Ahmad Nadeem Aslami, More Kanhaiah, Abraham Jobby, Swathy SS, Sulfikar S, Surabhi Raj4, Vandana Aravind.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (146-151)
    • No of Download = 158

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    BACKGROUND: Road traffic accidents are now becoming a leading cause of death among younger population. Every year nearly 1 million people die due to these accidents. Pedestrians are most vulnerable for injury in accidents. Head injury is an important cause for these deaths. OBJECTIVE: To find out the distribution and severity of road traffic accidents and to find the association between type of road user and head injury received during accident. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross sectional study conducted in a tertiary care hospital of Kollam, Kerala. 400 patients admitted during October 2014 to march 2015 in the casualty for road accidents were selected for analysis. Emergency case files of these patients were studied in detail. Epi Info version 3.5.1. was used for analysis. Chi-square test was done to find significance. Difference was accepted as significant at more than 95% (p-value <0.05). RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 39 years. Maximum (25%) patients were of the age group 21-30 years. 75% were males and 48.2% suffered head injuries. 24.75% were pedestrians. Out of these 57.6% suffered head injury. 5.8% of patients suffered severe head injury. Pedestrians suffered more (10.1%) severe head injury than non-pedestrians (4.3%). 6.5% succumbed to their injuries. Death rate among patients who suffered head injury (10.4%) was significantly more as compared to those who did not have head injury (2.9%). CONCLUSION: Road traffic accidents are a major public health problem although it can be prevented. Pedestrians should be very careful. The patients who receive head injury are at greater risk for mortality.

  13. Elongation of the left lobe of liver: A case report Download Article

    Shabana Sultana, Mrudula Chandrupatla, Naveena Swargam, Aruna Jyothi, Nitya Whagray
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (152-156)
    • No of Download = 241

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    Elongation of left lobe of liver may be attributed due to its non regression during embryonic development. Deformities of the liver confined to left lobe sufficiently extensive may cause symptoms due to pressure over fundus of stomach, spleen which may cause pain in epigastrium and left hypochondrium. Such cases regarded as analogous were recorded (Langenbuch, in Deutsche Chirurgie, I897, Lie-ferung 45, Leber u. Gallenblase, II 2).The study was conducted by observing livers from cadavers in Anatomy dissection hall of Apollo institute of medical sciences and research. It was observed, liver from one of the cadavers has presented an elongated left lobe. The findings of the present study may benefit radiologists and surgeons to diagnose properly and plan appropriate surgical approach. Such cases are usually treated by incision and resection of left lobe of liver.

  14. A rare case of aldosteron-secreting giant adrenal carcinoma: A case report and review of literature Download Article

    Mehtap Evran, Gamze Akkuş, Murat Sert, Tamer Tetiker
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (157-161)
    • No of Download = 166

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    İNTRODUCTİON Primary aldosteronism is the most common and curable form of secondary hypertension with on estimated prevalence of 10% in referred patients, and 4% in primary care. Primary aldosteronism is presented with signs of hypertension and hypokalemia classically. CASE PRESENTATİON A 46 years old male patient was referred to our hospital with weakness, dry mouth and weight loss. He was hypertensive at out-of-office measures as grade II according to last guidelines. The patient was hospitalized to service as primer hyper aldosteronism however adrenocortical carcinoma with distant metastases was detected. CONCLUSİON We presented a case of a man who had isolated aldosterone-producing adrenal cortical carcinoma. This is very rare case and also clinicians should be aware that primary hyperaldosteronism can occur in the context of adrenocortical carcinoma.

  15. Evaluation of anaemia in pregnancy study conducted in teaching hospital Download Article

    Yogiraj Vaijanathrao Chidre, Vijayalakshmi Chirumamilla
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (162-171)
    • No of Download = 178

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    BACKGROUND The mother at whose breast humanity is fed; her health is of vital concern to society. Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health problem in the developing countries like India. Anaemia is the commonest haematological disorder occurring during pregnancy. It has been a major problem for the obstetricians both with regard to maternal as well as foetal health. Material and Methods: One thousand twenty seven (1024) pregnant women and women in labour with haemoglobin concentration of 10gm and less were included in this study and investigated. Patients are again divided in three categories according to haemoglobin level Results: In the present study out of 1024 pregnant patients 498 cases were an-anaemia and pregnancy outcome. Patient had Swelling on feet and fatigue weakness, giddiness, anorexia, and irritability were the most prominent symptoms in this study. Other symptoms were palpitation, breathlessness, swelling over abdominal wall swelling over vulva and per vaiginal bleeding. Discussion: The cause for anaemia in age group 21 to 25 years was poor nutrition, frequent pregnancies & increased rate of abortions along with low socio-ecomic conditions. In another group i.e. less than 20 years the cause of anaemia was early pregnancy. The incidence of anaemia has been found 48.63% in present study. There were different predisposing and causative factors for occurrence of anaemia in these groups. These were low socio-economic conditions, early marriages, poor diet, poor antenatal care, worm infestations due to poor sanitation, chronic blood loss, etc Conclusion: Anaemia is a 100% preventable condition. Before the mother becomes pregnant she should fave a good haemoglobin level with the help of proper nutrition. For this the social and family status of all women in our country will have to be raised. Increasing her level of education and literacy can bring this.

  16. Clinical profile and immediate outcome of complicated malaria in children Download Article

    T. Jayachandra Naidu M.N. Sekar, A.Sailaja, Shankar Reddy Dudala, V.S. Anjan Kumar, B.Sasi Kumar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (172-179)
    • No of Download = 173

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    Malaria is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world which has made children frequent victims of its complications. In spite of measures taken to prevent and control malaria, its situation is getting worst globally, amounting to major mortality and morbidity. This work was intended to study the incidence of complicated malaria in children admitted in Sri Venkateswara Ram Narain Ruia Government General Hospital, Tirupati during the period of October 2010 to September 2011, to identify various clinical presentations of complicated malaria in children and to study the immediate outcome of complicated malaria in children who are admitted in our hospital. Falciparum malaria constituted the predominant type with 90% of all complicated cases. Severe malaria constitutes nearly half of total malaria cases admitted in our pediatric hospital. 1-5 years is the most common age group for both uncomplicated and complicated malaria cases indicating the endemicity. Mortality from complicated malaria is highest with cerebral malaria. Early identification and prompt treatment prevents most of deaths in children. Hyperparasitemia, malarial hepatitis and respiratory distress syndrome predict poor outcome. Stringent sanitary measures and vector control programmes are to be implemented in endemic areas in order to prevent the resurgence of malaria.

  17. The clinical study of pallative care lung cancer patients assessment and a pharmacovigilence awarness implementing for the cancer care home and hospitalised patients by using poly herbal natural dietary supplements Download Article

    A. Arul Selvam, Dr. Lingegowda.K.B, Dr. E. P. Kumar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (180-192)
    • No of Download = 158

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    Pharmacovigilance and Palliative care research and treatment is one of the most essential programme for the cancer patients.because the drugs what they are consuming is producing adverse effects worst than the diseases. our object is to study the different types of cancer patients-palliative care patients and the drugs they are consuming both the pain killers and other poly pharmacy. The main aim of the study to provide – activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other drugrelated problem.and creating the awareness programme about the pharmacovigilence activities.

  18. Accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology and incidence of benign/malignant tumours in solitary thyroid nodules Download Article

    Dr.Jamila Alagarsamy, Dr.Ravi Sivaraman, Dr.Valarmathi Kadhirvel
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (193-199)
    • No of Download = 170

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    BACKGROUND AND AIMS Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is still considered the gold standard test for the diagnosis of solitary thyroid nodules (STN). To determine the accuracy of Fine Needle Aspiration and Incidence of Malignant and Benign tumours in solitary nodules of thyroid METHODS AND RESULTS This is a cross-sectional and descriptive study involving 122 patients of any age and sex who had solitary thyroid nodules attending the surgical out-patient department and later subjected to surgery. The study was conducted at Government Chengalpattu Medical College, Chengalpattu. The study period was from 2012 to 2014.The patients included in the study had a STN clinically and sonographically. All the patients included were biochemically euthyroid and all underwent hemi-thyroidectomy. All the cytology and histopathology samples were correlated. The sensitivity (56.3), Specificity (98.10%), positive predictive value (81.80%), negative predictive value (93.70%) and accuracy of FNAC (93%) were analyzed. The incidence of malignant tumours was 13.11% and benign tumours were 7.38%. CONCLUSION We conclude that FNAC is an invaluable and minimally invasive procedure for pre-operative assessment of patients with a thyroid nodule. FNAC has high accuracy in the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid nodule. This study intends to alert the public about the simple mode of diagnosis, knowledge about definitive treatment and a proper follow-up once a histopathological diagnosis is obtained.

  19. To evaluate the effectiveness of selected intervention in reducing level of pain perception among primi gravida mothers. Download Article

    Angel Rajakumari.G, Soli.T.K, Sheela.R, Muthulakshmi.A
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (200-204)
    • No of Download = 355

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    AIM To evaluate the effectiveness of massage therapy in terms of level of pain perception among primi gravida mothers PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING The study was conducted in Nirmala Hospital, in Suryapet, Telugana, India in with 700 annual births. The primi gravida mothers were recruited and were allocated by non-probability purposive sampling technique into the two arms of the study, but only 20 in study and 20 in control group participants. INTERVENTION The study group received massage therapy to apply sacrum, buttocks, shoulders, waist, foot and hand during active phases of labour. The massage therapy was given by investigator for 20 minutes again the same step is repeated in a 10 minutes interval. MEASUREMENT AND FINDINGS In active stage of labour (3-6 cm of cervical dilatation) the women completed the demographic and obstetrical information and pain was measured by 0- 10 Modified combined numerical categorical pain intensity scale. This study revealed that there was high significant difference found in pain at p<0.001level between study and control group. CONCLUSION The study concluded that, clinical implementation of massage therapy usage during labour could be an effective non pharmacological intervention in reducing pain perception.

  20. The craniometric study of foramen magnum of Indian population and variations in its dimensions Download Article

    Dr.Gopalakrishna. K and Dr.B.S.Rathna
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (205-211)
    • No of Download = 160

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    OBJECTIVE Evaluation of the measurements of the foramen magnum in male and females skulls of Indian origin as well as to observe the variations in its shape INTRODUCTION The foramen magnum is the large opening located in the occipital bone of skull. The dimensions of the foramen magnum are greater in males than in females. It is used to determine sex of skeleton in the medicolegal conditions such as explosions, aircraft accidents and war injuries. Dimensions and its variations are important in dealing with different neurosurgical conditions and surgeries. MATERIALS AND METHODS This descriptive study was performed on fifty five (n=55) dry adult human skulls on following parameters. 1) Antero posterior diameter, 2) Transverse Diameter, 3) Shape of the foramen. Procedure: The parameters and shapes were carefully inspected and noted with proper illumination by single observer in uniform manner on a work sheet. Descriptive Statistics, Student’s t test and correlation between the groups were analysed for statistical significance at α< 0.05. RESULT In males the mean Sagittal and transverse diameter was 34.72±2.95 and 28.4±2.37 with correlation coefficient of r=0.858. In females it was 33.21±3.25 and 27.71±2.6 with correlation coefficient of r=0.899. The scatter diagram revealed a linear form, positive relationship. Results were presented with tables and scatter plots. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE AND CONCLUSION The dimensions of foramen magnum are not constant between male and females, and between different populations. The knowledge on the dimension, shape with its normality and laterality is essential for determination of sex in forensic science, diagnostic and planning and conducting neurosurgical procedures at cranio-vertebral junction with effective management, better result and prognosis.

  21. Effectiveness of autologous blood and steroid injections in patients with lateral epicondylitis, study conducted in teaching hospital Download Article

    Mirza Atif baig, E. Srinivas radhe shyam, P. N. Prasad
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (212-217)
    • No of Download = 142

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    Background: Lateral Epicondylitis is a degenerative type of disease, the onset of which is hastened by overuse of the arm and elbow along with repeated forceful activities and awkward posture of the limb or elbow. Objective: To find whether autologous blood injection is effective or corticosteroid injection is effective to treat lateral epicondylitis. Materials and methods: 164 patients were diagnosed by clinical examination and divided into Group A and Group B with 82 in each group based on treatment either autologous blood injection or corticosteroid injection respectively. The entire patient were treated according to their group and observed for effectiveness of both treatments to improve at least one grade of pain on Visual Analogue Scale at 3months follow up. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 10.0. Results: Effectiveness of autologous blood injection and steroid injection were 63(76.83%) and 42 (51.22%) respectively with significant p value 0.1675. In group A and B the male and female ratios were 1:1.27 and 1:1.73. The mean ages were 34.12 years ± 7.28SD and 36.78 years ± 9.01SD respectively. Gender, age and duration of symptoms of patients were not significantly affecting the effectiveness. Conclusion: This study concluded that autologous blood injection is effective than steroid injection in treating lateral epicondylitis

  22. Comparative studies on pre-operative inj carboprost with misoprostol tablets in 12-15 weeks medical termination of pregnancies Download Article

    Mary jayasheela, A.R.Vijaya lakshmi, Kamineni aswini
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (218-223)
    • No of Download = 168

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    Introduction: Induced abortions have earned much popularity in the last few years because of their greater safety and large impact on population control and on untimely or unwanted pregnancy. As many women, due to the lack of awareness, come in the late pregnancy i.e. later first trimester and early second trimester for termination, it becomes difficult to terminate by this method. Carboprost Inj and Misoprostol, are very safe and effective cervical softening agents with low cost, stability in light and climatic variations before the termination of pregnancy. Materials and Methods: A prospective study using single intra muscular injection of carboprost and misoprostol tablets were administered to 100 patients each and were analysed according to the age, parity, gestational age, extent of cervical dilation achieved, procedure time, amount of blood loss and the complications. Results and Discussion: Nearly 30% of the patients were between 25 – 34 of age, 88% were married and around 59% were of Parity 1 or 2. Vomiting was the most common type of complication in Group A and highest blood loss was seen among the 14th week of gestation patients in both groups. Conclusion: Manual evacuation of MTP has always resulted in very good results in early pregnancies but in late pregnancies, the use of Carboprost Inj or Misoprostol is more effective and safe with equally good results.

  23. Case report and review of literature: Subdeltoid bursa tuberculosis with rice bodies formation Download Article

    Ashwin Kasturi, Swetha Madas, Natesh K, Srinivasan N
    • Article Type: Case Report
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    • Pages (224-227)
    • No of Download = 159

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    Introduction: We describe a rare case of a patient with unilateral musculoskeletal manifestation of tuberculosis presented as bursitis of the left shoulder with rice bodies, without coexisting active tuberculosis or tuberculosis in the previous history. Case report: A 23 year old patient was examined, who complained of pain and swelling in the left shoulder for 2 years. MRI showed a large amount of rice bodies with joint effusion in the left shoulder with intact rotator cuff. The histological examination showed a tuberculosis-specific inflammatory response with giant cells and epithelioid granulomas. Arthroscopic debridement and removal of the loose bodies was done. Conclusion: We report a unique case of tuberculosis sub deltoid bursitis with rice bodies formation in absence of any other concomitant focus of tuberculosis infection, managed with arthroscopic debridement and anti –tuberculosis treatment (ATT) regimen for twelve months, with a long follow up of nine months.

  24. Anti-cancerous properties of the medicinal herbs mentioned in Ayurveda and its availability in the north eastern region of India Download Article

    Dr. Amit Swarnakar, Kangkan Kumar Das, Selim Mehmud
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (228-242)
    • No of Download = 215

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    Ayurveda one of the ancient medical procedures is providing a great impact in the life of human society. Many medicinal herbs are mentioned in Ayurveda having the capacity to mitigate many disease conditions that is prevailing in the human society. In today’s world scientist around the world have shown great interest in medicinal herbs and trying relevantly to get a solution for cancer. The main aim of the article is to reflect anti-cancerous activities of the medicinal herbs mentioned in Ayurveda and its availability in the north eastern states of India.

  25. Awareness of antenatal exercises among pregnant women in tertiary care centers, Mangalore, India Download Article

    Rachana Nayak, Simeen Virani, Chetna Gupta, Vijaya kumar, Dr. Amitesh Narayan, Dr. Suchitra Thunga, Dr. Prasanna Mithra P.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (243-247)
    • No of Download = 472

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    A proper exercise regimen during antenatal care helps the mother have a safe pregnancy and delivery. A physiotherapist trained in maternal health is best suited to prescribe exercises to pregnant women. In this cross sectional study, the participants were recruited from KMC hospitals, Mangalore from December 2014-Febuary 2015.Pregnant women in their reproduction age between 18 – 40 years in any trimester who had visited for antenatal check-up in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology were included in our study with the aim to find out their level of awareness about Antenatal Exercises in Pregnancy. A self-administered questionnaire was developed from previous literatures which was reviewed and content validated by subject experts in their respective fields. A sample of Ninety pregnant women who met the study criteria were explained about the study. After obtaining their Informed Consent the antenatal awareness questionnaire were given to pregnant women either Kannada or English depending on their language preference. The questionnaire includes basic demographic data, pregnancy history and question to relate to antenatal classes, different types of exercises prescribed during pregnancy. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 17. Frequencies and percentages were taken out as part of descriptive statistics.

  26. Osteoarthritis of knee joint Download Article

    Mrudula Chandrupatla, Naveena Swargam
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (248-252)
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    Osteoarthritis of knee joint is also called as osteoarthrosis or degenerative joint disease. It is a progressive disorder of joint caused by gradual loss of cartilage and resulting in the bony spurs and cysts at the margin of the joint. It is the common disease causing morbidity in old age. The etiology, pathology, clinical features, treatment by various methods including physiotherapy is discussed.

  27. Irritable bowel syndrome causes, diet and treatment Download Article

    D.N.Tripathi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (253-254)
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    The presence of a GATE in the colon that permits organisms of SIBO go up the portal system into liver and the bile ducts due to heavy infection that can be ascertained from the stool immediately, in a microscope under low power This path was created due to the presence of Hyaluronidase produced by amoeba in the large gut at the site of an ulcer thereof that persisted at times due to incomplete treatment or follow up. Sometimes a segment of the ascending colon may be infected simultaneously with symptoms of mild functional obstruction detected by auscultation and palpation of a fremitus over the caecum with a ‘painful spasm’. We carried out about 6-9 cases of right hemicolectomy, We could follow only 3 cases and stopped further to assess long term results of liver function that did not improve in the three aged patients whom we operated earlier.

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