Articles

  1. Morphological study of shape of glenoid cavity of scapula Download Article

    Rachna Agrawal, Sangita chauhan, Sunny yadav, Arpita gupta, Manish singhal
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (332-336)
    • No of Download = 337

    Abstract

    close

    Objectives The scapula is one of the most interesting bone of the human skeleton because it presents many variations. This variability in glenoid affects Prosthesis design, Instrumentation, and Intraoperative implantation techniques. The anatomical basis and variations of shape and size of glenoid cavity of scapula is very important to understand rotator cuff disease, shoulder dislocation and to decide the proper size of the glenoid component in the shoulder arthroplasty. Method This study was done on 131 dry, unpaired adult human scapulae. Out of the 131 scapulae, 64 were from the right side, and 67 were from the left. Only the bones with clear and intact glenoid cavity with complete ossification were used. We got a tracing of the shape of the glenoid cavity on the white sheet. Result In our study, we recorded 14.06% of the right and 29.86% of left glenoids were inverted comma shaped with a distinct notch. The pear shaped glenoids were 50.00% on the right side and 44.78% on the left side with an indistinct notch. On the right side 35.94% were oval and on the left side 25.37% were oval without any recognisable notch. Combined average of both sides of the glenoid 30.53% were oval shape, 47.33% was pear shape and 22.14% was inverted comma shape glenoid found in our study. In our study two type notch found in the pear shape glenoid. Single notch found in 85.11% on the left side and 87.50% on the right side, while the double notch found in 14.09% in left side and 12.50% in right side. This suggests no significance of number of notches in our study. The percentage of glenoids with both indistinct and distinct notch was 50% on the right side and 70.15% on the left side, which was found statistically significant in our study. This suggests that there is a significant difference in the presence of a notch on the right and left side.

  2. Phytochemical and Antimicrobial analysis of hulls and nuts of Tetracarpidium conophorum (Ukpa) on pathogenic organisms Download Article

    Ukpai Grace, Ugbo Emmanuel, Ejikeugwu Chika, Moses Ikechukwu, Eluu Stanley, Ilang Donatus
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (337-343)
    • No of Download = 344

    Abstract

    close

    Nigeria is well known for various medicinal plants including Tetracarpidium conophorum (upka) that have long been used for the treatment of a handful of infectious diseases. T. conophorum is one of Nigeria’s valuable medicinal plants found in the plant family Euphorbiaceae. This study evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the hulls and nut (edible) of T. conophorum on pathogenic microorganisms. Antimicrobial activities of the extracts from hull and nut of T. conophorum was evaluated on pathogenic species of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, Aspergillus species using the agar well diffusion method. Phytochemical analysis of T. conophorum extracts on aqueous, ethanol and n-hexane showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, reduced compound sugar, carbohydrates, and protein in both hull and nut. Antimicrobial analysis conducted confirmed the anti-bacterial and antifungal potentials of T. conophorum plant. The inhibition zone diameter of the soaked hull of T. conophorum against the bacterial isolates was in the range of 10-18 mm while the IZD of the soaked nut of T. conophorum was in the range of 10-17 mm for the bacterial isolates. The IZD of the plant extracts against the fungal isolates was in the range of 11-13 mm. The ethanol and n-hexane extracts of the soaked nut of T. conophorum plant had little antimicrobial activity on the fungal isolates compared to the bacterial isolates which were more susceptible to the antimicrobial activity of the plant. However, the aqueous extracts of the hull and nut of the T. conophorum plant had inhibitory effect on the bacterial isolates but the aqueous extracts of the nut of T. conophorum plant had no inhibitory activity against the fungal organisms. Further molecular studies are required to characterize the active constituents responsible for the antimicrobial activity of T. conophorum plant.

  3. In-vitro anthelmintic activity of methanolic leaf extract of Abrus precatorius Linn. (fabaceae) Download Article

    S. Selvadurai, M.D. Dhana Raju, A. Venkateswara Rao
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (344-348)
    • No of Download = 281

    Abstract

    close

    The present study was aimed to investigation of the anthelmintic potential of crude methanolic extract of the leaves of Abrus precatorius Linn. On Indian earth-worm “Pheretima posthum” and “Tubifex tubifex”. Three concentrations (5, 10, 15 mg/ml) of methanolic extract were studied in activity which involved the determination of time of paralysis (vermifuge) and time of death (vermicidal) of the worms. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml) was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control. Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. The result shows that methanolic extract possesses vermicidal activity and found to be effective as an anthelmintic. Therefore, the anthelmintic activity of the methanolic extract of Abrus precatorius Linn. Leaves have been reported.

  4. Astashine capsules: An excellent choice for cardiovascular health Download Article

    Govind Shukla, Nagalakshmi Yaparthy, Jyothika Vanamali, G.Santosh Kumar, C.J. Sampath Kumar
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (349-354)
    • No of Download = 436

    Abstract

    close

    Astaxanthin is a xanthophyll carotenoid present in microalgae, fungi, complex plants, seafood, flamingos and quail. It is an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties and as such has potential as a therapeutic agent in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Experimental studies demonstrated that astaxanthin protects the myocardium. In a randomized, double blind study on humans it was shown that astaxanthin decreased the low-chronic inflammation by reducing oxidative stress. Earlier studies have confirmed that astaxanthin reduces inflammation by inhibiting activation on the transcription factor NF-kB . Due to astaxanthin’s ability to protect cells from oxidation and its anti-inflammatory capacity, astaxanthin has potential to prevent the development of metabolic diseases. This article reviews the current available scientific literature regarding the effect of astaxanthin from the algae Haematoccus pluvialis on the cardiovascular health.

  5. A study on drug prescription pattern of antihypertensives in a tertiary care hospital Download Article

    Anjali T, Sarath Sasikumar, Vineetha S, Sari. S. Nair
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (355-361)
    • No of Download = 292

    Abstract

    close

    Background and Aim: Hypertension is an important public health challenge because of the associated morbidity and mortality caused by cardiovascular diseases and the cost to the society. Methods and Results: The study group consisted of four hundred patients who attended the outpatient department of Medicine at Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram. At base line, patient demographics, family history which includes previous history of hypertension and any other co-morbidity were assessed using the preform. The cost of antihypertensives has to be determined by using the information available from the Kerala Medical Services Corporation Limited (KMSCL), and National Pharmacy Pricing Authority (NPPA). The salient findings of the study are: 60.5% were females and 39.5% were males. Majority of the patients were under the age group of 60-69 (31.5%), 70- 79 (25%) and 50-59 (22.5%). 50.8% patients were treated with monotherapy and 49.3% patients were treated with combination therapy. During the cost analysis, the mean cost of antihypertensive was found to be Rs.0.30 in monotherapy and in combination therapy it was found to be Rs.1.2. Conclusion: The present study represents the current prescribing trend for antihypertensive agents and it highlights certain shortcomings in the existing prescribing practice.

  6. Prescription patterns of antibiotics used in urban and rural hospitals Download Article

    Ch. D. L. Krishnaveni, Sheik Ajmal, Panchakarla Pravellika, M.Rama Ayyappa, A.V.Venkata Ramambica
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (362-375)
    • No of Download = 188

    Abstract

    close

    Antibiotics are the most extensively used drugs in hospital settings. Wide ranges of antibiotics are available to treat various types of infections. Though the choice of antibiotics prescribed depends upon the clinical interest, culture sensitivity, age and gender, their extensive use may lead to the poor therapeutic outcome in terms of both health and economic. The present study was conducted over a period of eight months guidelines by the department of clinical pharmacy at the rural and urban government hospitals of Nallajerla, Venkataramannagudem, Tadepalligudem, Tanuku, Peravali, and Dwarkatirumala of West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh. A total of 250 cases were reviewed to evaluate the prescribing habits of physicians in the treatment of various types of infections. The result found that the majority of the patients were treated with quinolones (36.55%) and the major root of drug administration employed was oral route. This study noticed that there was prescription pattern of antibiotics used in urban and rural hospitals. 250 patients were prescribed antibiotics; 128 were males (51.2%) and 122 were females (48.8%). Median duration of hospitalization was 10 days. 390 antibiotics were prescribed and the most common were ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, metronidazole, ampicillin, aminoglycosides, macrolide antibiotics and cephalosporin and Sulfonamides. Excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotics contributes to the development bacterial resistance which is becoming a severe problem in the internal medicine ward. Formulation of a policy for hospital antibiotic use and an educational programme especially for junior doctors is required.

  7. Efficacy and safety of low-dose ipragliflozin, a selective sodium glucose transporter 2 inhibitor, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Download Article

    Ichiro Abe, Yasushi Ohnishi, Monami Koga, Kaoru Sugimoto, Tadachika Kudo, Kunihisa Kobayashi, Shigeaki Mukobara
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (376-382)
    • No of Download = 550

    Abstract

    close

    Objective Few studies have focused on the efficacy and safety of low-dose of selective sodium glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Ipragliflogin is an SGLT2 inhibitor licensed in Japan for administration at standard (50mg/day) or high (100mg/day) doses to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus in Japan. However, little is known about low-dose ipragliflozin (25mg/day) on safety and efficacy on the glucose control parameters and the other metabolic parameters. We study the efficacy and safety of low-dose ipragliflozin for the treatment of diabetic patients. Methods 14 individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus who had not used SGLT2 inhibitors were recruited and given low-dose ipragliflozin (25mg/day). After 24 weeks, glucose control parameters and the other metabolic parameters were evaluated. Results All patients completed the study without any complications. Compared to baseline, HbA1c, fasting glucose, and HOMA-β significantly improved, and in terms of metabolic parameters, body weight, systolic blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, and BNP significantly improved. In addition, urinary albumin excretion significantly reduced among the patients with microalbuminuria, and for one patient with macroalbuminuria, urinary albumin excretion decreased to half compared to baseline. Conclusion Low-dose ipragliflozin (25mg/day) is useful for treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus on not only glycemic control but also the other metabolic disorders without complications of SGLT2 inhibitors.

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Sebha region, Libya Download Article

    Nosseur M. El-sayed and Saleh A.S. Almannoni
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (383-391)
    • No of Download = 353

    Abstract

    close

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common worldwide parasitic diseases caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. It is commonly transmitted to humans by accidental ingestion of oocysts voided in cat feces or tissue cyst in meat. Congenital transmission may occur when an uninfected mother acquires primary infection during pregnancy. The acquired infection is usually asymptomatic, while congenital one may lead to abortion, stillbirth or severe abnormalities in the newborn. A total of 190 pregnant women were interviewed with questionnaire about known risk factors (age, residence and occupational status, raw vegetables and fruits intake, source of drinking of water, milk intake, frequency of meat intake, consumption of raw, undercooked meat or processed meat, frequency of eating in restaurant and fast food outlet, contact with cat and soil, history of pregnancy, abortion and blood transfusion). The collected sera were tested for detection of immunoglobulins (IgG&IgM) against T. gondii using Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay (ELFA) with the VIDAS Toxo-competition kit (BioMérieux, France).A total of 70 (36.84%) out of 190 pregnant women sera were seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii specific IgG antibodies, while all examined women were seronegative for IgM. Seroprevalence of T. gondii IgG antibodies in respect to previously mentioned risk factors were statistically non-significant (P>0.05).

  9. Severity of cognitive function affection using mini mental scale examination in geriatric population Download Article

    Hiral Modi, Neeta Vyas, Megha Sheth
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (392-395)
    • No of Download = 335

    Abstract

    close

    Background The world population has been experiencing significant ageing process that results in rising proportions of older persons in the total population since the mid-twentieth century. Cognitive function is unavoidable part of the aging process. Aging and deteriorating cognition is likely due to age and it progresses to incident dementia beginning at approximately the age of 65. Aim The aim of the study was to know the severity of cognitive function affection using Mini mental state examination scale (MMSE) in geriatric population. Method A survey study was conducted in the community of Ahmedabad. Hundred volunteers aged 65 to 85 years were included. The subjects with cognitive deficits following head trauma, any neurological and visual problems were excluded. MMSE which included tests of orientation, attention, memory, language and visual-spatial skills was administered to the subjects. Result Percentage of cognitive function affection in geriatric population was as follows, 11.6 % (Severe cognitive impairment), 60% (Mild cognitive impairment), and 28.3% (No cognitive impairment). Conclusion There is mild cognitive function affection in geriatric population and very low severe affection. So cognition function is affected by ageing process.

  10. Phenytoin induced dress syndrome Download Article

    Dadi G.V.S. Surya Chandini, Kommoju Hemalatha, Chelli Seilusha, Gottipati Daiva Krupa, Vallampati Prudhvi, Shaik Nazma
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (396-399)
    • No of Download = 379

    Abstract

    close

    Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) Syndrome may cause a serious hypersensitivity reaction to anti-epileptic drugs, such as phenytoin and carbamazapine drugs. DRESS syndrome symptoms include rash, fever, lymphadenopathy, eosinophilia, cutaneous eruption and potentially life-threatening damage of one or more organs such as nephritis, myocarditis or hepatitis. We report a 60 year old female patient was admitted in the hospital with the chief complaints of ulceration of mouth&lips, high fever, weakness, whitish papules on the hard palatal mucosa, patches of dryness in nasolabial folds and rashes on the whole body. Her past medical history was found to be late onset of epilepsy and hypertension since one month. Her medication history is she was taking Eptoin (phenytoin) 100mg thrice daily, C-Zam (Clobazam) 10mg, twice daily. Blood tests show elevated levels of neutrophils, eosinophils, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and liver enzymes such as SGOT, SGPT, Alkaline phosphatase. Decreased levels of lymphocytes, PCV, MCV and MCH. The patient was diagnosed as DRESS syndrome, according to RegiSCAR score. Phenytoin was discontinued and replaced by Clobazam and corticosteroids and vitamin supplement were prescribed. Finally a good response to the treatment was observed.

  11. Phytochemical, aphrodisiac and anti-hypertensive properties of Pausinystalia yohimbe Download Article

    Okolo R. U and Egua M. O
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (400-406)
    • No of Download = 315

    Abstract

    close

    In order to investigate the folkloric and traditional use of Pausinystalia yohimbe (PY) in vivo experiments were conducted. Male rats weighing between 170 and 260gm were randomly chosen for the experiment for the in vivo study. Rats were lightly anesthetized with 20mg/kg im of ketamine and 30mg/kg of phenobarbitone intra peritonially. The anaesthesia was maintained with ketamine intravenously. The rats breathed spontaneously. The left femoral artery was catheterized using a PP50 polyethylene catheter and connected to a strain-gauge blood pressure transducer (connected to a Grass polygraph, model 7D) for BP measurement. A second catheter in the right femoral vein (PP50) was used for the injection of drugs or extract. A 24G needle placed in the corpus carvanosum tissue and connected to a strain-gauge pressure transducer was used to measure the intra-cavernous pressure. Normal saline was slowly injected through the femoral vein and recordings made for a period of 30 to 45 mins to serve as control. Eight rats were used for each set or group. The result from the in vivo study was a significant increase intra-cavernous pressure (ICP) indicating erectile potential of the PY crude extract. The mean arterial blood pressure was lowered significantly to below 80mmHg which latter rouse to 90mmHg for the PY treated group while that of the control remained above 110 mmHg throughout the experiment. Since PY extract could lower blood pressure and also enhance erectile functions it is likely to become novel drug in management of hypertensive patients with erectile dysfunction.

  12. Reticulate acropigmentation of kKitamura with mental retardation - A rare case report Download Article

    Rajwinder Singh, Ashish Dalal, Mayank Kaushik, Jaswinder Kaur.
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (407-411)
    • No of Download = 300

    Abstract

    close

    Reticulate acropigmentation of Kitamura (RAPK) is a rare pigmentary disorder characterized by a network of freckle-like areas of pigmentation. Although RAPK was first considered to be confined to Japan, worldwide case reports have since appeared. We hereby report this case due to its rarity in Indian population and associated mental retardation.

  13. Primary malignant melanoma of the lower lip-A case report Download Article

    Jamila Alagarsamy, Hemavathy Arun, Mary lilly
    • Article Type: Case Report
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (412-416)
    • No of Download = 338

    Abstract

    close

    Malignant melanoma is a malignant neoplasm composed of melanocytes or melanocytic precursors. Primary mucosal melanoma of the head and neck is a rare entity, in comparison than their cutaneous counterparts. The tumor occurs more frequently in the hard palate and gingival mucosa followed by mandibular gingiva, lip mucosa and other oral sites. The aim of this case report is to document a case of primary melanoma of lower lip with neck node secondaries in a 70year old male patient. This case is presented here for the rarity of tumor location.

  14. Invitro antihelminthic activity of various extracts of piper betle leaves on Indian earth worms Download Article

    K. Renuka, CH.Vineela, B.R. Sarath Kumar
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (417-428)
    • No of Download = 249

    Abstract

    close

    Different extracts of piper betle were taken for anthelmintic activity against Indian earthworm Pheretima Posthuma Two concentrations (20 and 40 mg/ml) of various extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis and time for death of worms. Albendazole (20 mg/ml) was used as reference standard and carboxymethyl cellulose (0.5%) as a control group. Paralysis time can be determined by vigorous shaking when no movement was observed. When whitish substances were secreted from the body that one was termed as death time. Dose dependent activity was observed in the plant extracts but pet. Ether extract exhibited more activity as compared to others.

  15. Carcinosarcoma of uterus: a review Download Article

    Dr. Deepti Sharma, Dr.Garima Singh
    • Article Type: Review Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (429-435)
    • No of Download = 306

    Abstract

    close

    Carcinosarcoma of the uterus is an aggressive, rare biphasic neoplasm composed of malignant epithelial and mesenchymal elements believed to arise from a monoclonal origin. The principal treatment in early/locally-advanced carcinosarcoma is surgery. Because of its aggressiveness, it generally presents distant metastases at diagnosis. Adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy have uncertain effect. Chemotherapy alone or associated with radiotherapy seems to improve disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in stage III and IV UCS. No advantages in OS and DFS have been shown with radiotherapy alone. The present review summarizes and analyzes the most important features about this type of gynaecological cancer.

  16. Nutritional supplement for eyes: for prevention & treatment of cataract Download Article

    Dr.Vinod Yadav ,Govind Shukla, SangeetaKumari, Shivani Prashar, Dr.CB Rajput, Dr.Abhishek Ojha, Dr.Ferry Chandel, Rajesh kumar verma, Hafiz Muhammad Umar Nisar, Marlon O. Perez, Mercedita H. Perez
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (436-454)
    • No of Download = 354

    Abstract

    close

    Cataract is multifactorial diseases associated with several risk factors and it is responsible for 50% of blindness worldwide. At present, the only remedy for cataract is surgery. However the incidence is so large that the available surgical facilities are unable to cope up with the problem because of postoperative complications such as posterior capsular opacification, endophthalmitis and uncorrected residual refractive error. In India alone around 30 million people suffer from cataract. Thus, the expense and unavailability of surgery mean that non-surgical medical therapy or nutritional treatment to inhibit the formation or slow the progression of cataracts is an important goal in experimental eye research to benefit patients and reduce the huge economic burden. The present Article reviews the role of Nutritional supplements for eyes to prevent Cataract.

  17. Firearm disguised as sharp injury – A case report Download Article

    Jai Prakash Soni, Dinesh Chhillar, Kunal Khanna, Vinod Kumar, Vincent Merry, S. K. Dhattarwal
    • Article Type: Case Report
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (455-460)
    • No of Download = 159

    Abstract

    close

    Today’s world is full of crime; new laws are made but still crime is not stopping. Police officers have to be vigilant in order to crack a crime and set an example so that criminals will fear to do the crime. For that, police should have good forensic knowledge, since it’s an important tool to catch criminals and prosecute them for their crimes. But the truth is just the opposite - police personnel are careless & they do not possess sound forensic knowledge. They themselves destroy vital evidence knowingly or unknowingly thereby giving advantage to criminals by making such cases weak. We encountered such a case in which a dead body was found on a field under a tree. Police informed FSL team and made their primary opinion regarding apparent cause of death in this case as sharp injury caused by heavy sharp weapon. But when the body was examined in our institute during autopsy, not only doctors but police were also surprised to learn that the cause of death was firearm injury.

  18. Nutritional supplement for eyes: for prevention & treatment of cataract Download Article

    Dr.Vinod Yadav ,Govind Shukla, SangeetaKumari, Shivani Prashar, Dr.CB Rajput, Dr.Abhishek Ojha, Dr.Ferry Chandel, Rajesh kumar verma, Hafiz Muhammad Umar Nisar, Marlon O. Perez, Mercedita H. Perez
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (461-479)
    • No of Download = 346

    Abstract

    close

    Cataract is multifactorial diseases associated with several risk factors and it is responsible for 50% of blindness worldwide. At present, the only remedy for cataract is surgery. However the incidence is so large that the available surgical facilities are unable to cope up with the problem because of postoperative complications such as posterior capsular opacification, endophthalmitis and uncorrected residual refractive error. In India alone around 30 million people suffer from cataract. Thus, the expense and unavailability of surgery mean that non-surgical medical therapy or nutritional treatment to inhibit the formation or slow the progression of cataracts is an important goal in experimental eye research to benefit patients and reduce the huge economic burden. The present Article reviews the role of Nutritional supplements for eyes to prevent Cataract.

  19. Spectrum of pediatric tumors: A study from tertiary care centre Download Article

    Dr.Deepti Sharma, Dr.Garima Singh
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (480-482)
    • No of Download = 247

    Abstract

    close

    Background The spectrum of tumors in pediatric age group varies considerably from that of adult age group. The incidence of pediatric tumor is increasing in trend. Aims A retrospective observational study was conducted in our department to evaluate the changing spectrum of malignancy in pediatric population. Methods The hospital data of past 5 years [from January 2011 to December 2015, were analyzed for malignancy occurring in cohort of pediatric age group less than or equal to 14 years of age and it was compared to data from India and United State. Results The pediatrics population divided in 3 cohorts according to age 0-4 years (20.4%), 5-9 years (33.7%) and 10-14 years (45.9%). The incidence of pediatric tumors is higher in male as compared to female .The most common childhood malignancy is leukemia. Conclusion Population based surveillance as well as many etiological studies are needed to determine the parameters and changing pattern of pediatric malignancy. It is an urgent need of to develop a dedicated national pediatric tumor registry program.

  20. Magnitude of current contraceptive usage among males of reproductive age, in Asmara, Eritrea 2016 Download Article

    Ghirmay Ghebreigziabher, Habtom Mekonen, Lidya Ghirmai, Menghis Michael, Nardos Solomon, Rahel Habtemariam.
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (483-494)
    • No of Download = 203

    Abstract

    close

    Introduction Contraception is a means of birth control by regimen of one or more actions, devices, sexual practices, or medications followed in order to deliberately prevent or reduce the likelihood of pregnancy or childbirth. Men can participate in birth control by using a male method like condom, withdrawal, periodic abstinence and vasectomy. Objective of this study is to assess the magnitude of current male contraceptive usage among males of reproductive age in Asmara, Eritrea in 2016. Methodology A quantitative cross-sectional design was applied. A total of 612 eligible males whose age between 15-59 years and residing in Asmara were included in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to generate a quantitative data. An ethical consent was sought out from the study participants. Significant associated variables were further analyzed using logistic regression analysis Results The magnitude of current male contraceptive users are 38.2%. Condom was the most preferred method of male contraceptive (68.7%). The main reason for preferring was less side effects (26.5%). About half (56.2%) of the respondents had a positive attitude towards male contraceptives. The majority (77.6%) had a good knowledge about male contraceptives. A very large proportion (97.2%) of the respondents knew the presence of a male contraceptive in the market and only 8.7% opposed for its marketing. Conclusion Magnitude of current contraceptive usage is low. A significant relationship was established among the users with age, educational level, marital status, and having children alive. Majority had a good knowledge and about half had positive attitude towards male contraceptives. Recommendation Male centered family planning services are recommended in order male to have rich access for male contraceptive methods.

  21. Incidence of post cesarean section wound infection and its associated risk factors in orrota national referral maternity hospital between january and june 2015 Download Article

    Ghirmay Ghebreigziabher, Abrehet Gebrekidan, Ghebremicael Andemicael, Habteselassie Zerezghi.
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (495-506)
    • No of Download = 225

    Abstract

    close

    Introduction Cesarean section (CS) is a common mode of delivery now and post caesarean section wound infection (PCSWI) is becoming common infectious complication. This study was planned with the objective to determine the incidence rate and its risk factors of PCSWIs following CS at Orotta National Referral Maternity Hospital (ONRMH) in Asmara-Eritrea from January 1 to June 30, 2015. Methods A total of 410 consecutive pregnant women from Zoba Maekel undergoing CS, irrespective of indication, were studied. Women who died before the 3rd day of postoperative period were excluded. A questionnaire was developed to assess the risk factors associated with development of PCSWIs. All the subjects were followed from day one of surgery till discharge and then till the postoperative 30th day after discharge. Results PCSWI was identified in 28 (6.8%) out of 410 subjects. Nine types of microorganisms were isolated in 20 (71.4%) samples. The predominant isolated microorganism was Staphylococcus Coagulase negative 26.1% followed by Staphylococcus aureus 21.7%, and E. coli 17.4%. The isolated organisms were 100% sensitive to Clindamycin, Erythromycin, and Rifampcin but 100 % resistant to Ampicillin, Penicillin, and Oxacillin. Prolonged labor, prolonged rupture of membrane, multiple vagina examination, lack of administration of antibiotics prophylaxis, early stitch removal, early discharge from the hospital, and obesity showed strong association with PCSWI statistically significant with p value < 0.05. Conclusions The study revealed 6.8% PCSWIs rate. Development of PCSWI was related to multi-factorial. Nine different types of microorganisms were isolated. The degree of sensitivity and resistance of the microorganisms varied significantly. Recommendation The results of this study emphasized the need to implement on time effective antibiotic prophylaxis, avoid multiple vaginal examinations and shorten prolonged labour.

  22. Lipid profile and hormone sensitive lipase [HSL] gene variant in nigeria women with breast cancer Download Article

    Mathew Folaranmi olaniyan, Bosede Catherine Seun
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (507-516)
    • No of Download = 136

    Abstract

    close

    Background Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, being one of the leading causes of death among women and men. Emerging evidence suggests the role of lipid in the development of breast cancer. It becomes a great concern for the modern man and medical curiosity to further investigate alteration in lipid profile and hormone sensitive lipases genes among breast cancer patients in Nigeria. Aim and Objective This study was designed to investigate and compare the atherogenic indices and polymorphism of Hormone Sensitive Lipase gene in individuals with Breast cancer and healthy subjects (non-cancerous subject). Materials and Methods A total of 81women were in this study and were divided into two groups. Blood samples were collected from 50 patients with breast cancer and 31 normal controls for lipid profiles (T-CHOL, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C). The atherogenic indices (Lipid profile) were estimated spectrophotometrically and the Hormone Sensitive Lipase alleles were determined using polymerase chain reaction and Restriction Fragment length polymorphism methods. Results The results of Total cholesterol, Triglyceride and Low Density Lipoprotein in the breast cancer group were statistically significantly increased as compared with normal controls group (p<0.05) whereas no significant difference was seen statistically in the mean values of HDL,BMI,AGE(p>0.05) when test was compared with control group. In the comparison of the frequency of Hormone Sensitive Lipase gene in both Breast cancer and Non-breast cancer subjects, the result shows a higher frequency of mutant HSL in breast cancer cases compared with controls although the difference between the frequency in cases and control was not statistically significant. Conclusion With the result of this research, it may be concluded that LDL, TG and TC might actually have some role in the etiology of breast cancer. This study confirms the association between lipid profile, and increased breast cancer risk. Therefore, early detection and control of these factors may help in reducing the incidence of breast cancer and coronary heart disease and ultimately its social and economic burden on society.

  23. Effect of verbal encouragement and visual biofeedback on peak expiratory flow rate in healthy young subjects Download Article

    Ms.Dipali Rana
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (517-521)
    • No of Download = 293

    Abstract

    close

    Background & Aim of study Peak expiratory flow rate is simple and common method of measuring airway obstruction. The aim of this study is to find out the effects of verbal encouragement and visual biofeedback during the performance of peak expiratory flow. Methodology 60 Healthy young subjects, first and second year bachelor of physiotherapy (B.P.T.) students of Charotar institute of physiotherapy, Changa, Gujarat were selected. Students were briefly stated about the nature and intervention of the study and informed consent were taken. The method of peak expiratory flow was demonstrated to all subjects. After checking for inclusion and exclusion criteria, participants were randomly selected and assigned to two different orders of peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) assessments. Each subject went through peak expiratory flow rate assessments including with an intervention (verbal encouragement and visual biofeedback) and without the intervention (without verbal encouragement and visual biofeedback).Outcome measure: Peak expiratory flow rate by peak flow meter. Result Results shows a significant difference in PEFR with p value < 0.0001.Without intervention PEFR - Mean ± SD =290.50 ± 91.270.With intervention PEFR - Mean ± SD =341.67 ± 85.552. Conclusion The efficiency and reproducibility of peak expiratory flow can be affected by verbal encouragement and visual biofeedback during PEFR measurements.

  24. Renal biomarkers in plasmodium infected hepatitis B surface antigen (Hbsag) Sero-positive patients Download Article

    Mathew Folaranmi olaniyan and Tomisin Emily Lawal
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (522-528)
    • No of Download = 235

    Abstract

    close

    Background While co-infection with HBV and malaria is a major public health problem in large areas of the world, the mutual interactions between the two pathogens are poorly understood. Aim and Objective This study is designed to investigate the renal biomarkers in plasmodium infected HBsAg seropositive patients. Method Semi structured and pre tested questionnaires were administered to 100 participants to obtain their demographic information. From each individual subject, 5 ml of blood sample was obtained via venopuncture from the subjects using vacoutainer needle which was used for parasitological analysis and to obtain the serum for the serological detection of the HbsAg, serum creatinine, uric acid and GST. Result There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in mean values of GST, uric acid and serum creatinine when control subjects was compared among plasmodium falciparum infected patients (PM), hepatitis B virus infected patients and patients co-infected with both organisms. Conclusion With regards to the following result, there is a significant alteration in serum level of creatinine, uric acid and glutathione s transferase among patients co-infected with malaria and hepatitis B virus.

  25. Antiepileptic effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of peganum harmala on maximal electroshock seizure model in albino mice Download Article

    Dr. Abdulrahman and M. Alshahrani
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (529-535)
    • No of Download = 134

    Abstract

    close

    ABSTRACT Aim of the study The present study was under taken to evaluate the antiepileptic effect ethanolic extract of seeds of Peganum harmala (PHEE) in mice to validate its pharmacological property. Materials and methods Ethanolic extract of seeds of Peganum harmala was screened for antiepileptic effect by using maximal electroshock seizure threshold test at a dose of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. Distilled water and diazepam were employed as control and standard groups respectively. Results Ethanolic extract of seeds of Peganum harmala at the dose of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg in combination with standard drug Diazepam at the dose of 3.0 mg/kg increases the threshold of maximal electroconvulsions in dose dependant manner 11.2±1.52 and 12.3±1.71 respectively. Conclusion Ethanolic extract of seeds of Peganum harmala was able to potentiate the effect of Diazepam in convulsions.

  26. Cholesterol lowering effect of malabar spinach (Amunututu) on egg yolk induced hyper cholesterolaemic rabbits Download Article

    Mathew Folaranmi olaniyan
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (536-545)
    • No of Download = 228

    Abstract

    close

    Background Basella alba (amunututu) is a common leafy vegetable commonly prepared as soup among the Yoruba ethnic groups. It contains phytochemicals such as tannin, saponin, alkaloid, terpenoid, flavonoid, glycoside, phenolic, vitamins and minerals. Aim and Objective This study was designed to determine the lowering effect of ethanolic and aqueous extract Basella alba on Total cholesterol(CHOL-T), Low Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol(LDL-C),Total Triglycerides(TG-T), High Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Materials and Methods Twenty five rabbits weighing 0.7-1.3Kg classified into five experimental groups of 5 rabbits each labeled A, B, C, D(D1, D2), E(E1 and E2) were studied. Control group A were fed with normal feed and water. The extract was carried out using sterile distilled water and ethanol. Each of the extract was administered into some rabbits and was used to treat hypercholesterolemia. The normal rabbit meal was reconstituted to contain 20% egg yolk used for the induction of hypercholesterolemia in some of the rabbits. Plasma concentration of CHOL-T, LDL-C, TG-T, HDL-C was determined using CABAS C111 auto-Chemistry analyzer. Results The result obtained showed a significant decrease in the plasma value of CHOL-T, LDL-T, TG-T after the administration of either ethanolic or aqueous extract in hypercholesterolaemic rabbits and non-hyper cholesterolaemic rabbits(p<0.05). A significantly higher mean plasma value of HDL-C was obtained in hyper cholesterolaemic rabbits fed with 20% egg yolk after the administration of either ethanolic or aqueous extract than in rabbits fed with normal meal with p<0.05. Conclusion The ethanolic or aqueous extracts of Malabar Spinach were found to have a lowering effect on plasma lipids.

  27. Complications of helminthic infestation with illustration of a rare case of intestinal obstruction and gut gangrene secondary to ascariasis Download Article

    Dr. Kapil Rampal, Dr. Devendra K Prajapati, Dr Meghna Sharma
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (546-549)
    • No of Download = 225

    Abstract

    close

    Intestinal obstruction secondary to helminthic infestation is extremely rare even amongst the tropical countries that are endemic for the causative agent. Here we have review the problem with a special illustration of a case of ascariasis with intestinal obstruction and gut gangrene.

  28. Cephalometric features Of class II Div 1 and Class II Div 2 malocclusion in Maharashtrian population Download Article

    Vishal R. Patni, Suchita Daokar Amit Ajmera, Umal Doshi
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (550-556)
    • No of Download = 193

    Abstract

    close

    Objective To describe and analyze the skeletal and dental characteristics associated with Class II division 1 (Class II/1) and Class II division 2 (Class II/2) malocclusions in the anteroposterior and vertical dimensions in Maharashtrian population. Materials and Methods 200 lateral cephalograms were evaluated, out of which 100 films were of div 1and 100 films were of div 2 malocclusions, further subdivided based on gender. Lateral cephalograms were traced and different parameters were compared with each other. Results average mean ages of both groups was 23 – 26 years When comparison was done between difference in means of two groups (Table 3), there was no significant difference between mean values of parameters SNB, SNPOG, FACIAL ANGLE, Y-AXIS, LAFH, PAFH, FM ANGLE, GONIAL ANGLE, SN-MD ANGLE, MM ANGLE, and SADDLE ANGLE, (i.e. p>0.05) and highly significant difference between mean values of parameters SNA, ANB, FACIAL CONVEXITY,LI-MAND,UI-SN, and INTERINCISAL(i.e. p<0.01). Class II div 2 subjects showed retrognathic maxilla as compared to div 1 group, whereas incisor inclinations were reduced in div 2 group. In subjects with division1 the maxilla was normally positioned while in division 2 the maxilla was prognathic. Mandible was retrognathic in both groups. Lower incisors were proclined in both groups more so in division 1 malocclusion. Upper incisors were more proclined in div 1 and div 2 showed retroclined upper incisors. Interincisal angle was found acute in div 1 malocclusion while it was obtuse in div 1 malocclusion. Conclusions Distinct differences in morphological and dental characteristics were seen in Class II div 1 and div 2 cases should help clinician in deciding a specific treatment for these diverse subtypes of Class II malocclusion.

  29. Rifabutin induced vitritis in a HIV patient co-infected with tuberculosis: A case report Download Article

    Sri Rama Brao, SN Mothi, VHT Swamy, Sudheer AP, AS Ashritha, A Pramod Kumar
    • Article Type: Case Report
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (557-559)
    • No of Download = 189

    Abstract

    close

    A 48-year-old newly diagnosed HIV infected woman presented with ulcers in mouth, weight loss, breathlessness since 5-6 months, she was diagnosed with oral Candidiasis, Pneumocystis carnii Pneumonia and tubercular lymphadenitis. Seventy days after starting on ATT, she presented with complaints of blurring of vision in the right eye. Opthalmic evaluation revealed severe vitritis in the absence of posterior uveitis. The causality of vitritis to Rifabutin intake was probable as per WHO probability scales. It took 6 weeks for complete spontaneous resolution of Vitritis and the visual acuity returning to 6/6 in both eyes. Rifabutin toxicity can occur throughout the course of treatment that has to be monitored based on clinical manifestations.

  30. A prospective study of cervical lymphadenopathy and its clinico-pathological co-relation in general surgery OPD of a referral hospital for a period of one year Download Article

    Dr. Devendra K. Prajapati, Dr. Kapil Rampal, Jyoti M Prajapati
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (560-565)
    • No of Download = 134

    Abstract

    close

    Cervical lymphadenopathy represents a fairly common clinical presentation of diverse underlying pathology. The importance of a differential diagnosis is thought over by the fact that the diagnosis may change from a self-limiting viral infection to that of a disease having an altogether different line of management as tuberculosis or a potentially fatal disease as malignancy. This study prospectively followed 118 patients for one year and compared the prevalence of differential diagnosis of tubercular, nonspecific, malignant lymphadenopathy in different age groups based on the FNAC findings. The study outlines a higher overall prevalence of tubercular lymphadenopathy in a developing country as ours and a clear female preponderance. A higher male prevalence was observed in nonspecific reactive lymphadenopathy. Also for lymph nodes >2cm a combined tubercular and malignant adenitis prevalence reached 100%. FNAC is an easy and inexpensive tool for establishing a credible differential diagnosis.

  31. Evolution of orthodontic brackets Download Article

    Dr Vishal R. Patni, Dr Amit Ajmera, Dr Parikshit Agrawal, Dr Sushant Somwanshi
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (566-568)
    • No of Download = 493

    Abstract

    close

    Orthodontics distinguishes and differs itself from the other branches of medicine by its widespread use of an array of devices made of almost all the biomaterials known. From metals to plastic and from ceramics to composites, these materials bring beauty and health. Brackets evolutions from the introduction of pin and tube to lingual, magnetic and self -ligating brackets are rapid in pace and play a significant role in advancement of Orthodontic field. Though, we all are using recent brackets which are currently available in the markets, it is important to know the past history of brackets which was used earlier. Thus, this article reviews the history of various orthodontic brackets used till the present date.

  32. Homicide represented as sudden natural death: A case report Download Article

    Vinod Kumar, Jai Prakash Soni , Vijaypal Khanagwal, Vincent Merry, Dinesh Chhillar
    • Article Type: Case Report
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (569-573)
    • No of Download = 147

    Abstract

    close

    In many instances, unnatural deaths are often presumed by family members/relatives to be due to natural causes like heart attack and stroke and vice-versa in also true sometimes. This is especially common amongst the rural folk where concealed/occult fatal injuries may not be appreciable to the naked eyes or when the dead body is found in circumstances not seen by any eye-witness or where no foul play is suspected. Often, sudden death is deliberately made up by family members to be on account of heart attack in order to conceal the crime committed by someone from amongst the family members. We encountered such a case wherein a 35 year old male individual who was working in the fields of a village was found dead early in the morning on the fateful day by family members. The family members were taking the dead body for performing final rites but someone from the village informed the Police that the death was due to some foul act, as injury was appreciable over the neck. The Police prepared the inquest Report and forwarded the body for autopsy at General Hospital, though the relatives were reluctant to have autopsy on the body claiming it to be a case of sudden natural death. The Medical Officers at General Hospital noticed some injuries over the body and explained to the relatives that it was not a case of sudden natural death. However, the relatives were not agreeing upon the impression of the Medical Officers regarding the cause of death and they were adamant to label it a case of sudden natural death. Ultimately, the Medical Officers had to refer the body for examination by experts of Forensic Medicine at our Institute. The autopsy done at our Institute revealed the truth. The details of the injuries and other important findings noticed in this case will be discussed in this paper.

  33. Evaluate the spectrum of surgical site infections in general surgery patients admitted at tertiary care centre of north india Download Article

    Saurabh, Shekhar, Mahajan A, Chaudhry N K
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (574-582)
    • No of Download = 117

    Abstract

    close

    Background Surgical site infections (SSIs) are infections present in any location along the surgical tract after a surgical procedure. SSIs involve postoperative infections occurring at any level (incisional or deep). With this knowledge we hope to reduce the incidence of this problem in our institution and the burden borne by the patient. We also hope to sensitize other health care professionals to this problem. Aim To evaluate the spectrum of surgical site infections in general surgery patients Methodology This study included all patients admitted for surgery in the department of General Surgery at Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana between 1st November 2010 to 1st November 2011. Each patient was followed up from the time of admission till discharge from the hospital and also for 30 days postoperatively. The patients were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively. Swabs obtained from the infected wounds were processed aerobically and anaerobically by standard methods. Results In this study from 1st November 2010 to 1st November 2011, a total of 1041 surgeries were performed. There were 1008 major surgeries and 33 minor surgeries performed during the study period. Only inpatients were included in this study. Out of 1041 surgeries performed, surgical site infection (SSI) was detected in 47 (4.51%) patients. Escherichia coli was the predominant organism 15/27 (55.56%). Patients were divided into two arms (SSI group and Non SSI group). Patients who developed SSI were clubbed together in SSI group and those who did not develop SSI following operation were put in Non SSI group. Following observations were made and analysis was concluded accordingly. Data has also been tabulated. Conclusion It was found that males are more prone to develop surgical site infection. The length of preoperative hospitalization of more than 1 day was found to have direct relation with developing SSI. There was increased incidence of SSI in the patients in whom postoperative hospitalization was > 7 days. There was more risk of developing SSI in patients, who had serum albumin < 3.5 g/dl. There was increased incidence of SSI in patients in whom duration of surgery was >2 hours. There was increased incidence of SSI in patients in whom open drain was used. There was increased incidence of SSI in contaminated cases as compared to clean, clean contaminated and dirty cases. Pre-operative shaving as a method of hair removal increases the risk of developing SSI. There was increased risk of developing SSI in patients getting post-operative antibiotics for < 10 days than in patients getting post-operative antibiotics for more than 10 days. Escherichia coli (E. coli) was the commonest isolate for the postoperative wound infections.

  34. Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive microspheres of roxatidine acetate hydrochloride Download Article

    SK. Arifa Begum, D. Basava Raju
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (583-600)
    • No of Download = 179

    Abstract

    close

    The intention of the present study is to formulate mucoadhesive microspheres containing roxatidine acetate hydrochloride by employing xanthan gum & gum olibanum as mucoadhesive agent and by adapting ionotropic gelation technique. Response Surface Composite design was employed to study the effect of independent variables, polymer concentration (X1), and sodium alginate concentration (X2) on dependent variables mucoadhesion time. The best batch exhibited a high drug entrapment efficiency of 95.01% and a swelling index of 96.23%; percentage mucoadhesion after 10 h was 97.01%. The drug release was also sustained for 12 h. The polymer-to-drug ratio had a more significant effect on the dependent variables. The prepared mucoadhesive microspheres were characterized for various properties like preformulation, flow properties, in vitro mucoadhesion, in vitro drug release, entrapment efficiency and surface properties. The external and internal surface morphological characteristics of mucoadhesive microspheres were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The formulation which showed better flow properties, in vitro mucoadhesion, in vitro drug release and entrapment efficiency was selected as optimized formulation i.e., formulation MOG4. The in vitro release profiles from optimized formulations were applied on various release kinetic models of drug and suggested that the drug release from microspheres followed non-fickian diffusion. The optimized formulation MOG4 was subjected to stability studies for six months at 400±20C & 75±5%RH as per ICH guidelines and result have not showed any changes in physical parameters, formulation parameters and in vitro release studies.

  35. A review on antidiabetic property of Costus Speciosus (Kemuka) Download Article

    Jyotirmay Choudhury, Bishnu Prasad Sarma
    • Article Type: Review Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (601-606)
    • No of Download = 395

    Abstract

    close

    Medicinal plants have great importance in primary health care needs mankind and around 80% of world population relies on traditional medicinal system. India rich in herbal resources and Kemuka (Costus speciosus) is one of the important medicinal plants used in treatment of different diseases along with diabetes. This erect, succulent, perennial herb is native to South East Asia, especially found in India, Srilanka, Indonesia and Malaysia. The plant is described as Pramehaghna in Ayurveda and traditionally used by local people in different parts of Assam, Darjeeling, and Kerala for the treatment of diabetes. Various experimental studies around the world had explained its anidiabetic properties.

Registered and Approved by National Science Library (NSL),National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources(NISCAIR),
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research,New Delhi, India"